First Nation American Indian Classroom Resources.
November is National American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month.
Sami, Language, Code Talkers, Navajo, Tlingits, Cree, Cherokee,
Literacy, Black First Nation People,
Virgin Island, Hawaii Resources
is the bridge
from Asia to America
Where did the First Nation American Indians come from?
Take Away: Nobody Really Knows - Everyone can only guess.
Willerslev and his team propose that earlier than 24,000 years ago 'the ancestors of Native Americans and the ancestors of today's East Asians split into distinct groups. 'The Mal'ta child represents a population of Native American ancestors who moved into Siberia, probably from Europe or west Asia. Then, sometime after the Mal'ta boy died, this population mixed with East Asians. The new, admixed population eventually made its way to the Americas.'
'The finding suggests that about a third of the ancestry of today's Native Americans can be traced to 'western Eurasia' part of the Samoyedic family, which are near the borders of Russia, China, and Mongolia.with elements of the Iranian-Caucasian substratum' not from East Asians. The research may help explain why 'European ancestry previously detected in modern Native Americans do not come solely from mixing with European colonists.
6/18/15 Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon-dated to 8,340–9,200. We now know the DNA for the Kennewick Man shows he is an ancestor of modern Native Americans along the shores of the Columbia River in Washington State. The genome was most closely related to DNA from the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, one of the five tribes who originally claimed Kennewick Man as an ancestor.
11/1/14 Study: Native Americans have West Eurasian origins
As much as 35 percent of the genome of Native Americans is linked to the Middle East, Eurasia, and Europe this contradicts common belief indigenous peoples descended from East Asians who crossed Bering Sea land bridge.
Native Americans have closer genetic ties to people in Eurasia, the Middle East and Europe than previously believed, according to new research on a 24,000-year-old human bone. Genome sequencing on the arm bone of a 3-year-old Siberian boy known as the "Mal'ta Boy," the world's oldest known human genome, shows that Native Americans share up to one-third of their DNA with people from those regions, said Kelly Graf, a research assistant professor at the Department of Anthropology at Texas A&M University and a member of the international research team.
"The Mal'ta people who had this DNA were part of a group that ranged anywhere from Lake Baikal (Siberia) into Central Europe," she said. "This is part of a group that is genetically related to each other." They are not genetically related to the East Asians, however, so the question remains how DNA from these two peoples both ended up in the genetic code of Native Americans. "Native American ancestry is very complicated and very complex," Graf said.
People who migrated from Beringia, the Bering Straits
Russia and the Bering Straits are not exactly on the other side of the world from what we know as Europe, and the Asia connection has always been suggested by the Inuits, who more than any other Native American group resemble Asians. They look far more like, say, the Mongols of Central Asia than they do the Seneca in upstate New York or the Cheyenne of the northern plains. They don't know the roots of the peoples who crossed from Beringia or over the Bering Straits.
8/31/2014 DNA tells story of Arctic peopling DNA sequences from living and ancient inhabitants show a single influx from Siberia produced all the "Paleo-Eskimo" cultures, which died out 700 years ago. Modern-day Inuit and Native Americans arose from separate migrations.
- First Americans descended from the meeting and admixture of at least two populations, of which one is related to contemporary East Asians and the other to present-day western Eurasians.
- These findings may explain the presence of mitochondrial lineage X in Native Americans.
- The presence of a population related to western Eurasians further into northeast Eurasia provides a more likely explanation for the presence of non-East Asian cranial characteristics in the First Americans, rather than the Solutrean hypothesis that proposes an Atlantic route from Iberia.
- Genetic continuity in south-central Siberia before and after the LGM provides evidence for the presence of humans in the region throughout this cold phase, which is of consequence to population movements into Beringia and ultimately the Americas around 15,000 years ago.
"The result came as a complete surprise to us. Who would have thought that present-day Native Americans, who we learned in school derive from East Asians, share recent evolutionary history with contemporary western Eurasians? Even more intriguingly, this happened by gene flow from an ancient population that is so far represented only by the MA-1 individual living some 24,000 years ago", says Professor Eske Willerslev from the Centre for GeoGenetics who led the study.
At approximately 17,000 years ago, this post-LGM individual demonstrates similar genomic signatures as MA-1, with close affinity to modern western Eurasians and Native Americans and none to present-day East Asians. This result indicates that genetic continuity persisted in south-central Siberia throughout this climatically harsh period, which is a significant consideration for the peopling of Beringia, and eventually the Americas some 15,000 years ago. The team reports genomic results from the MA-1 individual which unravel the origins of the First Americans – ancestors of modern-day Native Americans. The most significant finding that the MA-1 genome reveals is its relation to modern Native Americans. This relative of present-day western Eurasians shows close affinity to modern Native Americans, but surprisingly not to East Asians who are regarded as being genetically closely related to Native Americans. The team finds evidence that this genetic affinity between MA-1 and Native Americans is mediated by a gene flow event from MA-1 into the First Americans, which can explain between 14-38% of the ancestry of modern Native Americans, with the remainder of the ancestry being derived from East Asians. The study concludes that two distinct Old World populations led to the formation of the First American gene pool: one related to modern-day East Asians, and the other a Siberian Upper Palaeolithic population related to modern-day western Eurasians.
THE FIRST TERROR
Between 1670 and 1715, more Indians were exported into slavery through Charles Town than Africans were imported.
Native American slavery: Historians uncover a chilling chapter in U.S. history. America’s Other Original Sin
Europeans didn’t just displace Native Americans—they enslaved them, and encouraged tribes to participate in the slave trade, on a scale historians are only beginning to fathom.
How common was it for Indians to be enslaved by Euro-Americans? Counting can be difficult, because many instances of Native enslavement in the Colonial period were illegal or ad hoc and left no paper trail. But historians have tried. A few of their estimates: Thousands of Indians were enslaved in Colonial New England, according to Margaret Ellen Newell. Alan Gallay writes that between 1670 and 1715, more Indians were exported into slavery through Charles Town (now Charleston, South Carolina) than Africans were imported. Brett Rushforth recently attempted a tally of the total numbers of enslaved, and he told me that he thinks 2 million to 4 million indigenous people in the Americas, North and South, may have been enslaved over the centuries that the practice prevailed—a much larger number than had previously been thought. “It’s not on the level of the African slave trade,” which brought 10 million people to the Americas, but the earliest history of the European colonies in the Americas is marked by Native bondage. “If you go up to about 1680 or 1690 there still, by that period, had been more enslaved Indians than enslaved Africans in the Americas.” As many as 10,000 Indians were enslaved between 1660–1760. Here are the names we know.
The The Navajo, or Diné, of the Southwestern United States are the second largest Native American tribe of Northern America. In the 2000 U.S. census, 298,197 people claimed to be fully or partly of Navajo ancestry. The Navajo Nation constitutes an independent governmental body which manages the Navajo Indian reservation in the Four Corners area of the United States. The traditional Navajo language is still largely spoken throughout the region, although most Navajo speak English fluently as well. Navajo refer to themselves in their native language as Diné, which is translated as "the people" in English. Dineh carved medicine dancers are an example of Navajo appropriation of Hopi techniques. "Navajo" is another tribe's name for the Dineh. Navajo is a Zuni word that means "many farms." The legend circulated among the Dineh is that it is a Spanish word for thief. The confusion does have bearing on why the Navajo are so prolific and have raided tribes for food, maintaining traditional lands after other native nations have vanished.
- 16 Thousand Year History of the People
- Totem Pole
- Stories Are Property
- Missionary Hymnal
- Indian Rights Activist
- Code Talkers
- Lacrosse Game
- Music Resources
The "Original" Melting Pot
The diversity of the original American Indian settlers was not quite as great as that of the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries when waves of European, Asian and (unwilling) African immigrants arrived on American shores. However, the First Americans did have more far-flung origins that were ever suspected. For example, Brace's studies have revealed that the Blackfoot, Iroquois, and other tribes from Minnesota, Michigan, Ontario, and Massachusetts descended from the Jomon, a prehistoric people of Japan. The Inuit in the far north and tribal groups who once lived down the Eastern seaboard into Florida appear to be a later branch from the trunk of the Jomon family tree. The Athabaskan-speaking people from the Yukon and northern-western Canada, who spread as far south as Arizona and northern Mexico (the Navajos and Apaches), appear to trace their origins to China. "Their craniofacial configuration allies them more closely to the living Chinese than to any other population in either hemisphere," say Brace.
Johanna Nichols, a Professor of Slavic languages and literature at the University of California at Berkeley. She says that new linguistic evidence from indigenous languages throughout the New World strongly suggest that humans have been in the Americas since as early as 40,000 BCE. She says that it is only along the west Coast that languages appear to have come from immigrants who arrived after the ice age, 14,000 years ago.
Nichols also has some radical ideas about the direction in which the country was settled. Breaking with the traditional view of migrations, she says that the interior of North America was colonized not only from Siberia but also from the south.
To bolster her argument for an early settlement date, Nichols points to findings from the Monte Verde site in southern Chile. It has been dated at 12,500 years old, which means the area was occupied during the last ice age. And, the Monte Verde people would have needed at least 6,500 years to travel from Alaska to Chile. Yet, that only takes us back to about 19,000 years ago. Here is where her study of language diversity provides the rest of the explanation for the 40,000 BCE settlement date. Her research suggests a very high degree of language diversity, and that, says Nichols, is something that happens only with time. She maintains that the approximately 150 distinct Native American language families we know of today must have required at least 35,000 years to develop.
Beneath this diversity, there are deep linguistic similarities that link across the Pacific Ocean. "From the Sierra and the Andes mountains all the way to the Atlantic, American languages share distinctive features," says Nichols. "They share grammatical features that are rare elsewhere, which gives the hemisphere a distinctive signature." One of these features is a pronoun system with (n) in the words for (I) and (we) and (m) in the words for (you). It is found on both the American Pacific coast and the south Asian coast.
Zheng He's Inheritance- Chinese Charts of the Americas from Ming back to Xia Speech for Library of Congress 5/16/05 2005 Charlotte Harris Rees - http://www.asiaticfathers.com/speech.htm. There is no mistaking the directions on these maps because they show where the sun rises and sets. There is a frozen area in the far north. By comparing this map to our current world map it is easy to see that North and South America do indeed form a type of semi-circle. Fu Sang is clearly marked where America is. http://www.asiaticfathers.com/map.htm
History of Alaska
Aleut word Alyaeska
The history of Alaska, as part of the United States, began in 1867, but settlement of the region dates back to the paleolithic period (around 12,000 BCE). The earliest inhabitants were asiatic groups who crossed the Bering Land Bridge into what is now western Alaska. Many, if not most, of the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas crossed the land bridge before migrating south. At the time of European contact by the Russian explorers, the area was populated by the Inuit and a variety of other Indigenous groups.
The name "Alaska" is most likely derived from the Aleut word Alyaeska, meaning greater land as opposed to the Aleut word Aleutia, meaning lesser land. To the Aleuts, this distinction was a linguistic variation distinguishing the mainland from an island.
Most of Alaska's documented history dates from European settlement, starting with Vitus Bering, a Danish navigator in the service of the Russian Navy aboard the St. Peter. However, Aleksei Chirikov, commanding the St. Paul, made landfall first at the present-day site of Sitka on July 15, 1741. The Russian-American Company soon began hunting the otters and helping to colonize much of coastal Alaska, but the colony was never profitable, due mainly to high shipping costs.
William H. Seward, the U.S. Secretary of State, engineered the Alaskan purchase in 1867 for $7.2 million. The nearby Yukon Territory in Canada and Alaska itself were the site of a gold rush in the 1890s, and they remained a significant source of mining even after gold reserves diminished. On July 7, 1958 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Alaska Statehood Act into law which paved the way for Alaska's admission into the Union as the 49th State on January 3, 1959.
The "Good Friday Earthquake" of March 27, 1964, registering 9.2 on the Richter scale, killed 131 people and leveled several villages. Oil revenues helped reestablish the population and infrastructure of the State after deposits were discovered in 1968, and after the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline was completed in 1977. In 1989, the Exxon Valdez hit a reef in the Prince William Sound, spilling between 11 and 35 million US gallons (42,000 and 130,000 m³) of crude oil over 1,100 miles (1,600 km) of coastline. Today, more than half of Alaskan land is owned by the Federal Government. The fates of the large reserves of wild frontier in the State are under debate, as is the highly political conflict over oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. [source]
First Nation people
In the past the Tlingit were avid practicers of slavery. The outward wealth of a person or family was roughly calculated by the number of slaves held. Slaves were taken from all peoples that the Tlingit encountered, from the Aleuts in the west, the Athabascan tribes of the interior, and all of the many tribes along the Pacific coast as far south as California. Slaves were bought and sold in a barter economy along the same lines as any other trade goods. They were often ceremonially freed at potlatches, the giving of freedom to the slave being a gift from the potlatch holder. However, they were just as often ceremonially killed at potlatches as well, to demonstrate economic power or to provide slaves for dead relatives in the afterlife. Treatment of slaves seems to have differed from individual to individual, and both stories and historical records give examples of slaves being treated very kindly as well as very cruelly.
Since slavery was an extremely important economic activity to the Tlingit, it came as a tremendous blow to the society when emancipation was enforced in Alaska some time after its purchase from Russia. This forced removal of slaves from the culture incensed many Tlingit who were not so disturbed by its outlawing as much as by the fact that they were not repaid for their loss of property. In a move traditional against those with unpaid debts, a totem pole was erected that would shame the Americans for not having paid back the Tlingits for their loss, and at its top for all to see was a very carefully executed carving of Abraham Lincoln, whom the Tlingits were told was the person responsible for freeing the slaves. This has since been frequently misinterpreted as intending to honor Lincoln, but it was in fact done as a way to shame the US government into repaying the Tlingits for a profound loss of wealth. [source]
America's First Roads
Migration Routes: There is a massive amount of research about Indian roads and trade routes prior to contact. So many of the towns that were founded were along or near these routes and settlement grew surrounding these old roads.
The Piedmont Crescent in North Carolina (where most in North Carolina live) that runs from Raleigh to Charlotte is along what is known as the Great Trading Path/Indian Trading Path that ran from Petersburg, VA to around Augusta, GA. This road and others had huge implications historically for what happens after contact. These pre-contact roads are the first map, everything should begin there because so much was dictated by what was already in place before contact. An interesting dissertation about the Great Trading Path/Indian Trading Path
Dr. Douglas Turner Day
512 S. Ellison Lane
Waynesboro, VA 22980