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Spanish Based Creole Languages like Papiamento

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American Virgin Islands Creole, American Indian words in Louisiana, DIALECT SPEAKERS,African American Vernacular, AAVE, Dialect, Creole, Patois, Pidgin, ESL

Sandra Madeira's "Towards an annotated bibliography of restructured Portuguese in Africa" is now posted on the ACBLPE website.  Go to (you don't need to register)
and then click on "documents" in the left menu.
This takes you to a page that allows you to click on:
Attached Files: Bibliography.pdf
(a PDF File is attached to this email in case you want to download it and
print it out to avoid having to scroll down every time you use it.)
You can also click on a short document called
Instructions 1-7-09.pdf


Source: "Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao, which lie near Venezuela in the Caribbean Ocean. Arawak Indians lived there when the Spanish arrived in 1527. The Dutch took possession in 1634, forcing the Spaniards and most Indians to leave. They took some Indians as slaves on Curaçao, and sent others to Bonaire and Aruba. This change in power did not necessarily lead to a change in language spoken, however, because the Dutch often preferred to use Spanish or Portuguese or Creole Portuguese with conquered peoples, and Dutch amongst themselves (Holm 2000).
The Dutch brought the first West Africans in 1648; at least some probably spoke pidgin Portuguese.
Sephardic Jews relocated from Brazil beginning in 1659, probably speaking a regional variety of Portuguese or Spanish. After 1660, Jews played a major role in the administration of slave camps, often trading with Spanish Americans. By the 1680s, the African population equaled the white population. Most slaves did domestic work.

Dutch and Jews learned the emerging creole for contact. ~ Holm (2000)

estimates that the creole stabilized on Curaçao around 1700, then spread to Bonaire and Aruba. PP words are attested in Jewish ship names in 1706, and Dutch documents in the 17th and 18th centuries. By the time the creole was fully established in the late 18th century, Dutch missionaries preached in PP.
After slavery was abolished, the islands remained under Dutch control, but later achieved some autonomy.

Curaçao and Bonaire now belong to the group of islands called the Netherlands Antilles. Aruba was part of the N.A. until 1986, when it became independent of this group. (It remains under the jurisdiction of the Netherlands.) Today, about 80% of island residents speak PP as a first language. Dutch remains the language of government and education.

Spanish is culturally important. Portuguese was used during the early slave trade, but fell out of use by 1800. English has only recently (1915 on Curaçao, 1928 on Aruba) entered the picture on the islands with the introduction of the petroleum industry, and is economically important in oil and tourism. Today, residents speak PP, Dutch, Spanish, and English."

Palenquero (also Palenque) is a Spanish-based Creole spoken in Colombia.

The ethnic group which speaks this Creole consists only of 2,500 people, as of 1989. It is spoken in Colombia, in the village of San Basilio de Palenque which is south and east of Cartagena, and in some neighborhoods of Barranquilla. The village was formed by escaped slaves (Maroons) and Native Americans. Since many slaves had not been subjected to a lot of contact with white people, the palenqueros spoke Creole languages from Spanish language and their African ones. Spanish speakers are unable to understand Palenquero. There are some influences from Kongo in Democratic Republic of Congo. As of 1998, 10% of the population of age under 25 years speaks Palenquero. Most common to the elderly.

The current issue (13 = 2009) of RILI (Revista Internacional de Linguistica Iberoamericana) includes an obituary of the Spanish creolist German de Granda, pp. 271-280.  De Granda was the co-discoverer (with Derek Bickerton) of Palenquero's creole identity, and he wrote a number of publications about African influence on Caribbean varieties of Spanish, as well as contact varieties in (Spanish) Equatorial Guinea.

More on Spanish-based creole languages


Chavacano (also Chabacano) is a Spanish-based Creole language and the name of the Six Dialects of Spanish loan words turned into a Creole language spoken in the Philippines.

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