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8th grade test 1895

RULES FOR TEACHERS 1872

  1. Teachers each day will fill lamps, clean chimneys.
  2. Each teacher will bring a bucket of water and a scuttle of coal for the day's session.
  3. Make your pens carefully. You may whittle nibs to the individual taste of the pupils.
  4. Men teachers may take one evening each week for courting purposes, or two evenings a week if they go to church regularly.
  5. After ten hours in school, the teachers may spend the remaining time reading the Bible or other good books.
  6. Women teachers who marry or engage in unseemly conduct will be dismissed.
  7. Every teacher should lay aside from each pay a goodly sum of his earnings for his benefit during his declining years so that he will not become a burden on society.
  8. Any teacher who smokes, uses liquor in any form, frequents pool or public halls, or gets shaved in a barber shop will give good reason to suspect his worth, intention, integrity and honesty.
  9. The teacher who performs his labor faithfully and without fault for five years will be given an increase of twenty-five cents per week in his pay, providing the Board of Education approves.

 

1879

 

WASHINGTON, D. C. PUBLIC SCHOOLS

QUESTIONS FOR THE ANNUAL EXAMINATIONS, 1879

INSTRUCTIONS.—The sheet of paper to be written upon must be so place that the widest margin will be at the top of the page, and the narrow space for numbers of the questions on the left.  Marginal lines have been ruled, and the writing should not extend beyond these.  The number of the question should be written in the narrow space between the vertical ruled lines.   Each subject should be written only once, on the upper line, near the middle of the first page, and the name of the pupil should be written to the right of ti, on the same line. A line should be left blank after the subject, and after each answer.  Not more than one subject should be written on any page.  The pages used for each subject should be numbered from one upward, and the number should be written near the upper outer corner of the page, but inside the marginal line.

In arithmetic give the work in full, and before the answer write Ans. No credit will be allowed if the work is not given.  When a subject is finished, take the work to the teacher's desk.  Pains should be taken with expression, arrangement, penmanship, and neatness in the written work, as it will be preserved in the office of the Superintendent, and be subject to inspection; but the work must not be copied.

 FIFTH GRADE.

 JUNE 2.

 GEOGRAPHY. (Two credits each.)


1. What are the principal mineral products of the United States, and where is each found?
3. Which are the five leading nations of Europe.
5. Give a brief description of the Sahara.
8. Of what does the Chinese Empire consist?
10. Make the diagram and draw the outline of South America.

MUSIC (Two credits each.)
1. How many sounds in the scale?
2. Write the numeral names of the scale; also the syllables used in slugging the scale.

JUNE 3.

 ARITHMETIC (Three credits each.)


1. What is prime number; least common multiple; complex fraction;
3. Write the six propositions showing the effect on the value of a fraction of multiplying and dividing the numerator and denominator.
5. If 323 1/5 yards of cloth cost $33.45 ½, how much will be gained on each yard by selling the cloth for $45.13?

PHYSIOLOGY. (Two credits each.)
1. Describe the heart.
2. Describe the larynx.
3. How is air changed by respiration?

JUNE 4.

GRAMMAR.  (Two credits each.)

1. Define the words “subject” and “predicate,” as used in a sentence.  Give an example, showing a simple subject and a compound predicate.
4. What parts of speech have person and number?
9. Name the adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions in the following sentence:
The arose about this time a man named Cromwell, of incredible depth of understanding,
strict integrity, and unwavering resolution.

DRAWING (Five credits each.)
Blank form for drawing furnished to the pupil, containing the following instructions:

1. To the pupil: Draw without ruling or measuring from the copy placed before you. (Time allowed, 20 minutes.)
To the teacher: Put upon the board one of the vase forms on page 15 of the drawing book.
2. To the pupil: Draw the quatrefoil 4 inches in diameter, and put in it from memory any design you have made.  (Time allowed, 40 minutes.)

SOURCE: Fifth Report of the Board of Trustees of Public Schools of the District of Columbia, 1878-79.  

8th Grade Exam from 1895

 

 

The following document was transcribed from the original document in the collection of the Smoky Valley Genealogy Society, Salina, Kansas. This test is the original eighth-grade final exam for 1895 from Salina, KS. An interesting note is the fact that the county students taking this test were allowed to take the test in the 7th grade, and if they did not pass the test at that time, they were allowed to re-take it again in the 8th grade. SOURCE

Smoky Valley Genealogical Society
EXAMINATION GRADUATION QUESTIONS OF SALINE COUNTY, KANSAS April 13, 1895
J.W. Armstrong, County Superintendent
Examinations at Salina, New Cambria, Gypsum City, Assaria, Falun, Bavaria, and District No. 74 (in Glendale Twp.)
Reading and Penmanship. - The Examination will be oral, and the Penmanship of Applicants will be graded from the manuscripts.

Grammar (Time, one hour)

  1. Give nine rules for the use of Capital Letters.
  2. Name the Parts of Speech and define those that have no modifications.
  3. Define Verse, Stanza and Paragraph.
  4. What are the Principal Parts of a verb? Give Principal Parts of do, lie, lay and run.
  5. Define Case, Illustrate each Case.
  6. What is Punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of Punctuation.
  7. - 10. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.

Arithmetic (Time, 1.25 hours)

  1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.
  2. A wagon box is 2 ft. deep, 10 feet long, and 3 ft. wide. How many bushels of wheat will it hold?
  3. If a load of wheat weighs 3942 lbs., what is it worth at 50 cts./ bushel, deducting 1050 lbs. for tare?
  4. District No. 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for incidentals?
  5. Find cost of 6720 lbs. coal at $6.00 per ton.
  6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7 percent.
  7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft. long at $20 per metre?
  8. Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.
  9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance around which is 640 rods?

    clue FYI:
    One rod or pole
    = 25 links = 5.94 varas = 5 ½ yards = 16 ½ feet

  10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.

U.S. History (Time, 45 minutes)

  1. Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided.
  2. Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus.
  3. Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War.
  4. Show the territorial growth of the United States.
  5. Tell what you can of the history of Kansas.
  6. Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion.
  7. Who were the following: Morse, Whitney, Fulton, Bell, Lincoln, Penn, and Howe?
  8. Name events connected with the following dates: 1607 1620 1800 1849 1865

Orthography (Time, one hour)

  1. What is meant by the following: Alphabet, phonetic, orthography, etymology, syllabication?
  2. What are elementary sounds? How classified?
  3. What are the following, and give examples of each: Trigraph, subvocals, diphthong, cognate letters, linguals?
  4. Give four substitutes for caret 'u'.
  5. Give two rules for spelling words with final 'e'. Name two exceptions under each rule.
  6. Give two uses of silent letters in spelling. Illustrate each.
  7. Define the following prefixes and use in connection with a word: Bi, dis, mis, pre, semi, post, non, inter, mono, sup
  8. Mark diacritically and divide into syllables the following, and name the sign that indicates the sound: Card, ball, mercy, sir, odd, cell, rise, blood, fare, last.
  9. Use the following correctly in sentences, cite, site, sight, fane, fain, feign, vane, vain, vein, raze, raise, rays.
  10. Write 10 words frequently mispronounced and indicate pronunciation by use of diacritical marks and by syllabication.

Geography (Time, one hour)

  1. What is climate? Upon what does climate depend?
  2. How do you account for the extremes of climate in Kansas?
  3. Of what use are rivers? Of what use is the ocean?
  4. Describe the mountains of North America.
  5. Name and describe the following: Monrovia, Odessa, Denver, Manitoba, Hecla, Yukon, St. Helena, Juan Fermandez, Aspinwall and Orinoco.
  6. Name and locate the principal trade centers of the U.S.
  7. Name all the republics of Europe and give capital of each.
  8. Why is the Atlantic Coast colder than the Pacific in the same latitude?
  9. Describe the process by which the water of the ocean returns to the sources of rivers.
  10. Describe the movements of the earth. Give inclination of the earth.

This Gives the saying of an early 20th century person that "she/he only had an 8th grade education" a whole new meaning.

Answers to the 8th Grade Test:

 

Answers to the 8th Grade Test:

GRAMMAR (Time, one hour)

1. Give the nine rules for the use of Capital Letters.

  • Always capitalize the first letter in a sentence or sentence fragment
  • Always capitalize the first letter in a direct quotation
  • Always capitalize the first letter in a direct question within a sentence
  • Always capitalize the first letter in a line of poetry
  • Always capitalize the first letter in proper nouns, including registered trademarks, names of treaties, geological eras, planets, courts of law, the days of the week, and genera in zoology and botany
  • Always capitalize the first letter in titles of books, magazines, newspapers, movies, works of art, and music, except for conjunctions, prepositions, and articles (Gone With the Wind)
  • Always capitalize the first letter in the names of ships, aircraft, and spacecraft (e.g., Sputnik)
  • Always capitalize the first letter in peoples' names (e.g. John Smith)
  • Always capitalize the first letter in a title preceding a person's name (e.g., Mr.)
  • Always capitalize the first letter in words designating the Deity (e.g. God)
  • Always capitalize the pronoun "I"

2. Name the parts of speech and define those that have no modifications.

  • Noun: A word used in a sentence as a subject or object of a very or a preposition.
  • Pronoun: A word used as a substitute for a noun and which refers to a person or thing.
  • Adjectives: A word that modifies a noun.
  • Verb: A word that expresses an act, occurrence, or mode of being.

3. Define:

  • Verse: A line of metric writing
  • Stanza: A series of lines within a poem that are arranged together and usually involve a recurring pattern of meter and rhyme.
  • Paragraph: A subdivision of a written composition consisting of one or more sentences dealing with one point or giving the words of one speaker.

4. What are the principal parts of a verb?

Transitive, intransitive, past, present, future, conditional, subjunctive

Give the principal parts of do, lie, lay, and run.

  • Did, do, doing, shall do
  • Lied, lie, lying, shall lie
  • Lay, lay, laying, shall lay
  • Ran, run, running, shall run

5. Define Case.

A change in the form of a noun, pronoun, or adjective indicating its grammatical relation to other words.

Illustrate each case.

Near, nearer, nearest
Nicely

6. What is Punctuation?

Dividing a written matter with punctuation marks.

Give rules for principal marks of punctuation.

  • Comma: Separates main clauses joined by a conjunction; separates words in a series; sets off an adverbial clause.
  • Semicolon: Links main clauses not joined by conjunctions.
  • Colon: Introduces a clause that explains or amplifies what has gone on before.
  • Period: Terminates a sentence.
  • Hyphen: Used in some compound words.
  • Question mark: Terminates a direct question.
  • Exclamation point: Terminates an emphatic phrase or sentence.
  • Apostrophe: Indicates the possessive case or omissions in contracted words.
  • Parentheses: Sets off supplementary material.
  • Quotation marks: Enclose direct quotations.

7-10. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.

Arithmetic (Time, one hour)

1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.

  • Arithmetic is the branch of mathematics that deals with real numbers.
  • Addition: Combining numbers to obtain an equivalent quantity.
  • Subtraction: Deducting one number from another.
  • Division: Dividing one number by another.
  • Multiplication: Adding an integer a specified number of times.

2. A wagon box is 2 feet deep, 10 feet long, and 3 feet wide. How many bushels of wheat will it hold?

48

3. If a load of wheat weighs 3942 pounds, what is it worth at 50 cts. per bu., deducting 1050 lbs. for tare?

The net weight of the wheat is 2,892 pounds. A bushel of wheat weighs about 60 pounds. The correct answer is $24.10.

4. District No. 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for incidentals?

1.3 percent

5. Find cost of 6720 lbs. Coal at $6.00 per ton.

$20.16

6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7 percent.

$26

7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft. long at 20 cents per sq. foot?

$128

8. Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.

Bank discount is the bank charge made for payment of a note prior to maturity, expressed as a percentage of the note's face value. Discount is subtracted from the principal before the borrower receives the money. A person who borrows $300 at a discount rate of 10 percent for 90 days would receive only $270.

9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance around which is 640 rods?

An acre is 160 square rods. The answer is $60.

11/07 Jim Lerman explains: "The problem with the problem is that it is worded incorrectly, which my experience has taught me is the case in about 0.5% of math problems, either the problem or the answer is wrong.
In this case, the problem should state that the area of the square farm is 640 square rods, not the perimeter being 640 linear rods. If the farm costs $60 at $15 per acre, it has to be 4 acres. 4 acres x 160 square rods per acre is 640 square rods. It's the only way the problem can fit the answer. Also, I don't think it matters what shape the farm is, as long as the area is 640 square rods".

10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.

U.S. History (Time, 45 Minutes)

1. Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided.

  • The Colonial Era
  • The Revolutionary Era
  • The Critical Period
  • The Early National Era
  • The Jeffersonian Era
  • The Antebellum Era
  • The Civil War Era
  • The Gilded Age
    Later periods of American History include:
  • The Progressive Era
  • World War I
  • The Interwar Era
  • World War II
  • The Postwar Era

2. Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus.

In 1492, the Italian-born Columbus captained three ships westward, seeking a water-route to the Spice Islands. After three months, he encountered land in the Caribbean.

3. Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War.

Causes of the Revolution include the British decision to levy taxes in the colonies without the colonists consent; the stationing of troops in the colonies; the imposition of restrictions on colonial trade, manufacturing, and westward expansion; and infringement of the colonists' legal rights and liberties. Consequences of the Revolution include the emancipation of slaves in many northern states and the adoption of graduate emancipation schemes in other states in the North; the disestablishment of churches in most states; the adoption of new state constitutions; and rapid westward expansion.

4. Show the territorial growth of the United States.

A correct answer would include the purchase of Louisiana Territory from France; the annexation of Texas; the acquisition of the Pacific Northwest as a result of negotiations with Britain; the Mexican War; the Gadsden Purchase; the purchase of Alaska from Russia; and the annexation of Hawaii.

5. Tell what you can of the history of Kansas.

A correct answer would include the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which opened Kansas to white settlement and the contest between pro-slavery and free soil forces to control Kansas' territorial legislature.

6. Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion.

  • The First Battle of Bull Run: The first full-scale battle of the Civil War, which took place in Northern Virginia not far from Washington, dashed Union hopes for a quick military victory.
  • Antietam: This battle, which witnessed the bloodiest day of the Civil War, halted a Confederate offensive into the North and led President Lincoln to issue his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Gettysburg: The largest battle in the history of the Western Hemisphere ended the Confederacy's ability to wage an offensive war in the North and removed the threat of foreign intervention in the conflict.

7. Who were the following:

  • Morse: A prominent artist and nativist who invented the telegraph.
  • Whitney: The inventor of the cotton gin also helped popularize the American System of standardized parts and mass production.
  • Fulton: Demonstrated the practicality of steam-powered navigation.
  • Bell: A teacher of the deaf who invented the telephone.
  • Lincoln: The 16th President of the United States led the Union during the Civil War and issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which transformed the conflict into a war to liberate the slaves.
  • Penn: The Quaker founder of Pennsylvania colony.
  • Howe: An inventor of the sewing machine.

8. Name the events connected with the following dates:

  • 1607: The founding of Jamestown, Britain's first enduring colonial settlement.
  • 1620: The landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock.
  • 1800: The election of Thomas Jefferson as the third president marks the first transfer of power from one political party to another.
  • 1849: The discovery of gold in California the previous year led some 80,000 '49ers to migrate into the territory.
  • 1865: The defeat of the Confederacy in the Civil War and the assassination of President Lincoln.

Orthography (Time, one hour)

1. What is meant by the following:

  • Alphabet: A set of letters or characters with which a language is written.
  • Phonetic: Representing the sounds of speech.
  • Orthography: The representation of a language by written letters or symbols.
  • Etymology: The history of a word.
  • Syllabication: The division of words into syllables.

2. What are elementary sounds? How classified?

The elementary sounds are the basic sounds of speech.

3. What are the following, and give examples of each:

  • Trigraph: a cluster of three successive letters
  • Subvocals: The occurrence in the mind of words without vocal articulation.
  • Diphthong: A sound (such as the last sound in the word "toy") that starts at the position of one vowel and moves toward another.
  • Cognate: Words related by descent from the same ancestral language.
  • Linguals: Sounds produced by the tongue.

4. Give four substitutes for caret 'u.'

  • ie (view)
  • ew (blew)
  • oo (food)
  • ou (through)

5. Give two rules for spelling words with final 'e.' Name two exceptions under each rule.

  • A single long vowel followed by a consonant (other than w or y) is often followed by a final 'e.' (example: crude or prove; exception: love or above)
  • Two consonants followed by a long 'e' at the end of a word often include two "e"'s. (example: free or tree; exceptions: brie or monkey)

6. Give two uses of silent letters in spelling. Illustrate each.

Pneumonia; knight

7. Define the following prefixes and use in connection with a word:

  • Bi: two parts; bicycle
  • Dis: opposite or deprive of; disagreeable
  • Mis: badly, unfavorable, or not; mistrust
  • Pre: earlier or prior to; prehistoric
  • Semi: half or partly; semi-circle
  • Post: after or subsequent; posthumous
  • Non: not or reverse of: nonpaying
  • Inter: between or occurring among: intermarriage
  • Mono: alone, single, or containing one: monotheistic
  • Super: above or over; superscript

8. Mark diacritically and divided into syllables the following, and name the sign that indicates the sound:

  • Ball 'bol
  • Mercy 'm&r-sE
  • Sir 's&r
  • Cell 'sel
  • Rise 'rIz
  • Blood 'bl&d
  • Fare 'far
  • Last 'last

A glossary of pronunciation terms:

  • Accent marks: a mark used to indicate stress or pitch.
  • Diaeresis: Two dots placed side-by-side over a vowel to indicate that a vowel is considered a separate vowel, even though it would normally be considered part of a diphthong.
  • Digraph: A series of two letters that constitute a single sound not predicted by combining the two letters.
  • Diphthong: A sound that start at the position for one vowel and moves toward the position of another.
  • Long and short vowels: Vowel-containing sounds that are long or short in duration.

9. Use the following correctly in sentences,

  • Cite: Cite the proper source.
    Site: The landing site was on the western coast.
    Sight: It was a beautiful sight.
  • Fane: (temple or church) To the east is a fane.
    Fain: (happy or inclined) He was fain to go to the party.
    Feign: (to give a false impression) He feigned death.
  • Vane: (an object showing the direction of the wind) There was a weather vane on the roof.
    Vain: You are so vain.
    Vein: Blood flows through her veins.
  • Raze: The construction workers razed the barn in order to build a new house.
    Raise: She raised the flag.
    Rays: He enjoys the sun's rays.

10. Write 10 words frequently mispronounced and indicate pronunciation by use of diacritical marks and by syllabication.

Geography (Time, one hour)

1. What is climate?

The condition of the weather at a particular place.

Upon what does climate depend?

On the season, the temperature, wind velocity, the degree of cloud cover, and precipitation, among other factors.

2. How do you account for the extremes of climate in Kansas?

The state's physical location. Cold air from the north moves easily across the Kansas plains during the winter, and hot winds blow from the south in the summer.

3. Of what use are rivers? Of what use is the ocean?

Rivers offer a source of drinking water, water power, and transportation routes. The ocean also provides a transportation route.

4. Describe the mountains of North America.

Major mountain ranges include the Appalachians, the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevadas, and the Cascades.

5. Name and describe the following:

  • Monrovia: The capital of Liberia.
  • Odessa: City and port in southern Ukraine on the Black Sea.
  • Denver: The capital of Colorado.
  • Manitoba: A Canadian province.
  • Hecla: A volcano in southwest Iceland.
  • Yukon: A territory in northwest Canada between Alaska and British Columbia.
  • St. Helena: An island in the South Atlantic.
  • Juan Fernandez: A group of three islands in the southeast Pacific west of Chile
  • Aspinwall: A city in western Pennsylvania.
  • Orinoco: A river flowing from the Brazilian border to the Columbian border and into the Atlantic.

6. Name and locate the principal trade centers of the U.S.

New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco

7. Name all the republics of Europe and give the capitals of each.

Examples include:

  • Britain (London)
  • Finland (Helsinki)
  • France (Paris)
  • Germany (Berlin)
  • Italy (Rome)
  • Netherlands (Hague)
  • Sweden (Stockholm)

8. Why is the Atlantic Coast colder than the Pacific in the same latitude?

Because of the routes of the ocean currents.

9. Describe the process by which the water of the ocean returns to the sources of rivers.

Through evaporation and precipitation.

10. Describe the movements of the earth. Give the inclination of the earth.

The earth spins on its axis once a day. It spins around the sun once a year. The earth's inclination is 23.45 degrees.

EXAMINATION FOR ADMISSION.
Jersey City High School, JUNE, 1885

The following entrance examination for prospective high school students in Jersey City, N.J. was reprinted in the Union City, N.J., newspaper, the Hudson Dispatch, and later in the Wall Street Journal, June 9, 1992, Section A, p. 16.

1885 HIGH SCHOOL ADMISSION TEST

Algebra

I. Define Algebra, an algebraic expression, a polynomial.
Make a literal trinomial.

II. Write a homogeneous quadrinomial of the third degree.
Express the cube root of 10ax in two ways.

III. Find the sum and difference of 3x - 4ay + 7cd - 4xy + 16, and
10ay - 3x - 8xy + 7cd - 13.

IV. Express the following in its simplest form by removing the parentheses and combining: 1 - (1 - a) + (1 - a + a2) - (1 - a + a2 - a3).

V. Find the product of 3 + 4x + 5x2 - 6x3 and 4 - 5x - 6x2.

VI. Expand each of the following expressions and give the theorem for
each: {a+4}2, {a2-10}2, {a+4} {a-4}.

VII. Divide 6a4 + 4a3x - 9a2 x2 - 3ax3 + 2x4 by 2a2 + 2ax - x2.

VIII. Find the prime factors of x4 - b4 and x3 - 1.

IX. Find the G.C.D. of 6a2 + 11ax + 3x2, and 6a2 + 7ax - 3x2.

X. Divide (x2 - 2xy + y2)/ab by (x - y)/bc and give the answer in its
lowest terms.

ARITHMETIC

I. If a 60 days note of $840 is discounted at a bank at 4 1/2% what are the proceeds?

II. Find the sum of {square root of} 16.7281 and {square root of} .72 1/4.

III. The interest of $50 from March 1st to July 1st is $2.50.
What is the rate?

IV. What is the cost of 19 cwt. 83 lb. of sugar at $98.50 a ton?
What is discount? A number?

V. Divide the difference between 37 hundredths and 95 thousandths by 25 hundred thousands and express the result in words.

VI. The mason work on a building can be finished by 16 men in 24 days, working 10 hours a day.
How long will it take 22 men working 8 hours a day?

VII. A merchant sold a quantity of goods for $18,775.
He deducts 5% for cash and then finds that he has made 10%.
What did he pay for the goods?

IX. By selling goods at 12 1/2% profit a man clears $800.
What was the cost of the goods, and for what were they sold?

X. A merchant offered some goods for $1170.90 cash, or $1206 payable in 30 days.
Which was the better offer for the customer, money being worth 10%?

GEOGRAPHY

I. What is the axis of the earth?

What is the equator?

What is the distance from the equator to either pole in degrees, in miles?

Why is it warmer at the equator than near the poles?

II. Name four principal ranges of mountains in Asia, three in Europe, and three in Africa.

III. Name the capitals of the following countries:
Portugal, Greece, Egypt, Persia, Japan, China, Canada, Hindostan, Thibet, Cuba.

IV. Name the states on the west bank of the Mississippi, and the capital of each.

V. Bound New Jersey, and name six important cities in the state.

VI. Tell the situation of the following:
Detroit, Chicago, Portland, Rio Janeiro, Callao, Venice, Bombay, St. Louis, Halifax, Vera Cruz.

VII. Name 10 countries of South America, and the capital of each.

VIII. Bound Russia and name its capital and largest river.

IX. In what countries is coffee raised?

What are the principal exports of France?

Of the West Indies?

X. New York is nearly 75 {degrees} west of London.
When it is noon at the former, what time is it at the latter?

GRAMMAR

I. Analyse the following:
Perseus ground his teeth with rage, for he saw that he had fallen into a trap.

II. Make a list of all the verbs in the sentence above, and give the principal parts of each of them.

III. Parse for, had fallen, that, saw

IV. Give two uses of the hyphen.

V. Copy the sentence below, and punctuate it properly.
"Will you please to tell me boys, for what the reindeer is useful"?

VI. Write a sentence containing a noun used as an attribute, a verb in the perfect tense potential mood, and a proper adjective.

VII. Correct

{a} It is only me.

{b} Who did she invite?

{c} Whenever my husband or son take an umbrella down town, they always leave it.

VIII. Write the declension of

{a} bird,

{b} man,

{c} fly,

{d} fox,

{e} it

IX. Write four lines of poetry, giving particular attention to the use of capitals, and to punctuation.

X. Make three sentences, using the plural of sheep

{1} in the nominative case,

{2} in the possessive,

{3} in the objective.

XI. Write a declarative sentence; change to an imperative, to an interrogative, to an exclamatory, and punctuate.

U.S. HISTORY

I. What people settled Massachusetts?

Where did they land, and what was their character?

II. Name four Spanish explorers and state what induced them to come to America.

III. What event do you connect with 1565, 1607, 1620, 1664, 1775?

IV. Name the thirteen colonies that declared their independence in 1776.

V. Name three events of 1777. Which was the most important and why?

VI. What caused the war of 1812?

Who was president during that war?

What was the result of it?

VII. What form of government was established in 1789?

Into what three branches was the government divided?

What do the Senate and House of Representatives constitute?

VIII. What caused the Mexican war?

What was the result?

What American general commanded at the capture of the City of Mexico?

IX. What was the remote and the immediate cause of the great Civil war.

Who captured Fort Donelson?

X. Name three commanders of the Army of the Potomac.

ANSWERS 1885 High School Test

 

Algebra

I. Define Algebra, an algebraic expression, a polynomial. Make a literal trinomial.

Algebra: A method of computation in which letters represent numbers and quantities in order to uncover an unknown quantity.

Algebraic expression: An equation consisting of a collection of variables and numbers involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, or other kind of calculation.

Polynomial: A sum of two or more algebraic equations.

Literal trinomial: x + y + z

II. Write a homogeneous quadrinomial of the third degree. Express the cube root of 10ax in two ways.

2x3 - 2x2 + 3x + 5
cube root of 10ax
ax to the 1/3 power

III. Find the sum and difference of 3x - 4ay + 7cd - 4xy + 16, and 10ay - 3x - 8xy + 7cd - 13.

Sum: 6ay + 14cd - 12xy + 3
Difference: 6x - 14ay + 4xy + 29

IV. Express the following in its simplest form by removing the parentheses and combining: 1 - (1 - a) + (1 - a + a2) - (1 - a + a2 - a3).

a3 + a

V. Find the product of 3 + 4x + 5x2 - 6x3, and 4 - 5x - 6x2.

36x5- 73x3 - 18x2 + x + 12

VI. Expand each of the following expressions and give the theorem for each: {a+4}2, {a2-10}2, {a+4} {a-4}.

a2 + 8a + 16
a4 - 20a2 + 100
a2 - 16

Theorems:
(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2
(a - b)2 = a2 - 2ab + b2
(a + b)(a - b) = a2 - b2

VII. Divide 6a4 + 4a3x - 9a2 x2 - 3ax3 + 2x4 by 2a2 + 2ax - x2.

3a2 - ax - 2x2

VIII. Find the prime factors of x4 - b4 and x3 - 1.

(x2 + b2)(x + b)(x - b); (x - 1)(x2 + x + 1)

IX. Find the G.C.D. of 6a2 + 11ax + 3x2, and 6a2 + 7ax - 3x2.

(2a + 3x)

X. Divide (x2 - 2xy + y2)/ab by (x - y)/bc and give the answer in its lowest terms.

c(x - y)/a

ARITHMETIC

I. If a 60 days note of $840 is discounted at a bank at 4 1/2% what are the proceeds?

365-day year, $833.79

II. Find the sum of {square root of} 16.7281 and {square root of} .72 1/4.

4.94

III. The interest of $50 from March 1st to July 1st is $2.50. What is the rate?

15 percent

IV. What is the cost of 19 cwt. 83 lb. of sugar at $98.50 a ton? What is discount? A number?

Using U.S. hundred weight of 100 pounds, $97.66.

What is a discount?

Percentage rate deducted from certain quantity.

A number?

Concept of how many.

V. Divide the difference between 37 hundreths and 95 thousandths by 25 hundred thousands and express the result in words.

One thousand
One hundred

VI. The mason work on a building can be finished by 16 men in 24 days, working 10 hours a day. How long will it take 22 men working 8 hours a day?

21 9/11

VII. A merchant sold a quantity of goods for $18,775. He deducts 5% for cash and then finds that he has made 10%. What did he pay for the goods?

$16,214.77

VIII. A requires 10 days and B 15 days to do a certain piece of work. How long will it take A and B working together to do the work?

Six days

IX. By selling goods at 12 1/2% profit a man clears $800. What was the cost of the goods, and for what were they sold?

If profit is based on cost, cost is $8,400 and selling price is $7,200. If based on selling price, cost is $5,600 and selling price is $6,400.

X. A merchant offered some goods for $1170.90 cash, or $1206 payable in 30 days. Which was the better offer for the customer, money being worth 10%?

$1,170.90

GEOGRAPHY

I. What is the axis of the earth? What is the equator?

The real or imaginary line on which the earth rotates or is supposed to rotate.

What is the equator?

Imaginary circle around the earth that is everywhere equally distant from the two poles and divides the earth's surface into the northern and southern hemispheres;

What is the distance from the equator to either pole in degrees, in miles?

90 degrees, and 6,250 miles

Why is it warmer at the equator than near the poles?

Solar radiation is most concentrated at the equator for the entire year.

II. Name four principal ranges of mountains in Asia, three in Europe, and three in Africa.

Asia: Himalayas, Urals, Hindu Kush and Khangal;
Europe: Alps, Carpathians and Pyrenees;
Africa: Atlas, Drakensberg and Ethiopian Highlands.

III. Name the capitals of the following countries: Portugal, Greece, Egypt, Persia, Japan, China, Canada, Hindostan, Thibet, Cuba.

Portugal: Lisbon
Greece: Athens
Egypt: Cairo
Persia: Tehran
Japan: Tokyo
China: Peking (Beijing)
Canada: Ottawa
Hindostan: Calcutta
Thibet: Lhasa
Cuba: Havana.

IV. Name the states on the west bank of the Mississippi, and the capital of each.

Louisiana (Baton Rouge), Arkansas (Little Rock), Missouri (Jefferson City), Iowa (Des Moines) and Minnesota (St. Paul).

V. Bound New Jersey, and name six important cities in the state.

Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth, Trenton, and Camden

VI. Tell the situation of the following: Detroit, Chicago, Portland, Rio Janeiro, Callao, Venice, Bombay, St. Louis, Halifax, Vera Cruz.

Michigan, Illinois, Oregon or Maine, Brazil, Peru, Italy, India, Missouri, Nova Scotia, Mexico.

VII. Name 10 countries of South America, and the capital of each.

Argentina (Buenos Aires), Bolivia (La Paz), Brazil (Brasilia), Chile (Santiago), Colombia (Bogota), Ecuador (Quito), Paraguay (Asuncion), Peru (Lima), Uruguay (Montevideo), Venezuela (Caracas).

VIII. Bound Russia and name its capital and largest river.

Moscow, Volga

IX. In what countries is coffee raised?

Tropical countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Nigeria.

What are the principal exports of France?

Machinery, agricultural products, and transportation equipment.

Of the West Indies?

Sugar, petroleum, chemicals, bananas, and alumina.

X. New York is nearly 75 {degrees} west of London. When it is noon at the former, what time is it at the latter?

5 p.m.

GRAMMAR

I. Analyse the following: Perseus ground his teeth with rage, for he saw that he had fallen into a trap.

II. Make a list of all the verbs in the sentence above, and give the principal parts of each of them.

Ground: grind, ground, ground; saw: see, saw, seen; had fallen: fall, fell, fallen.

III. Parse for, had fallen, that, saw

For: preposition introducing the prepositional clause "for he saw," which is used to explain Perseus' rage.

Had fallen: past perfect tense of the verb fall; this tense is used to indicate that the action of falling took place at a time before the action of seeing.

Saw: simple past tense of the verb "to see," used here to indicate a) what caused Perseus' rage, and b) the sequence of events in the sentence.

IV. Give two uses of the hyphen.

To join two words used as a compound noun; to indicate division at the end of a line of type.

Copy the sentence below, and punctuate it properly. "Will you please to tell me boys, for what the reindeer is useful"?

Will you please to tell me, boys, for what the reindeer is useful?

V. Write a sentence containing a noun used as an attribute, a verb in the perfect tense potential mood, and a proper adjective.

VI. Correct

{a} It is only me.

It is only I. Predicate nominative.

{b} Who did she invite?

Whom did she invite? Object of verb invite.

{c} Whenever my husband or son take an umbrella down town, they always leave it.

Whenever my husband or son takes an umbrella downtown, he always leaves it. The "or" makes the subject grammatically singular; the rest of the sentence applies to either one or the other, but not both at once (as would be the case if the word were "and").

VII. Write the declension of

{a} bird,

bird, birds

{b} man,

man, men

{c} fly,

fly, flies

{d} fox,

fox, foxe

{e} it

it, its

VIII. Write four lines of poetry, giving particular attention to the use of capitals, and to punctuation.

Had we but world enough and time,
This coyness, lady, were no crime;
We would sit down and think which way
To walk and spend our long love's day.

IX. Make three sentences, using the plural of sheep

{1} in the nominative case,

The sheep are in the meadow.

{2} in the possessive,

The sheep's wool was carded.

{3} in the objective.

We sheared all the sheep.

X. Write a declarative sentence; change to an imperative, to an interrogative, to an exclamatory, and punctuate.

John went to the store.
John, go to the store.
John, will you go to the store?
John finally went to the store!

U.S. HISTORY

I. What people settled Massachusetts?

The English Puritans

Where did they land, and what was their character?

They landed at Plymouth Rock, Boston, Mass.; and Providence, R.I.

They were strongly religious and believed in predestination, divine omnipotence, and the need to create a holy community that could serve as a model for other people.

II. Name four Spanish explorers and state what induced them to come to America.

Ponce De Leon, Balboa, Coronado, Cortez;
To conquer and Christianize the inhabitants.

III. What event do you connect with 1565, 1607, 1620, 1664, 1775?

1565 -- Pedro Menendez founded St. Augustine, Fla.
1607 -- Jamestown settled.
1620 -- 103 Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.
1664 -- British seized New Netherland from Dutch.
1775 -- Battles of Lexington and Concord.

IV. Name the thirteen colonies that declared their independence in 1776.

Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Virginia.

V. Name three events of 1777. Which was the most important and why?

Battle of Saratoga, Battle of Germantown, Battle of Brandywine; Saratoga was the most important, since British Gen. Burgoyne was stopped in his push southward.

VI. What caused the war of 1812?

Disputes over British interference with American shipping and impressments of American sailors; concern that the British were instigating Indian uprisings; and American land hunger.

Who was president during that war?

James Madison

What was the result of it?

The United States acquired Indian lands in the Southeast and Old Northwest; Spain subsequently agreed to recognize a U.S. boundary extending to the Pacific Ocean; the Federalists were stigmatized as traitors.

VII. What form of government was established in 1789?

A federal system of government

Into what three branches was the government divided?

Executive, legislative, and judicial branches

What do the Senate and House of Representatives constitute?

The legislative branch

VIII. What caused the Mexican war?

Disputes between Mexico and the United States over the Texas border and Mexico's refusal to sell California and New Mexico to the United States.

What was the result?

The United States acquired California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and parts of Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, and Wyoming, and established the Texas-Mexico boundary at the Rio Grande River.

What American general commanded at the capture of the City of Mexico?

Zachary Taylor

IX. What was the remote and the immediate cause of the great Civil war.

Remote: Northern fears of a Slave Power conspiracy; Confederate fears of a strong central government that would threaten slavery.

Immediate: The attack on Fort Sumter

Who captured Fort Donelson?

Ulysses S. Grant

X. Name three commanders of the Army of the Potomac.

George Meade, Ulysses S. Grant and George McClellan

In what battle was "Stonewall" Jackson killed?

Battle of Chancellorville

How?

He was shot by one of his own men

 

1999 HIGH SCHOOL HISTORY QUIZ

The American Council of Trustees and Alumni, a Washington-based nonprofit group that promotes liberal-arts study, posed 34 high-school level questions randomly to 556 seniors at 55 leading colleges and universities, including Harvard, Princeton and Brown. Only one student answered all the questions correctly, and the average score was 53 percent.

1. When was the Civil War?

a. 1750-1800
b. 1800-1850
c. 1850-1900
d. 1900-1950
e. after 1950

2. Who said Give me liberty or give me death?"

a. John Hancock
b. James Madison
c. Patrick Henry
d. Samuel Adams

3. What is the Magna Carta?

a. The foundation of the British parliamentary system
b. The Great Seal of the monarchs of England
c. The French Declaration of the Rights of Man
d. The charter signed by the Pilgrims on the Mayflower

4. The term Reconstruction refers to:

a. Payment of European countries' debts to the United States after the First World War
b. Repairing of the physical damage caused by the Civil War
c. Readmission of the Confederate states and the protection of the rights of black citizens
d. Rebuilding of the transcontinental railroad and the canal system

5. Are Beavis and Butthead . . .

a. A radio show
b. Television cartoon characters
c. A musical group
d. Fictional soldiers

6. The Scopes trial was about:

a. Freedom of the press
b. Teaching evolution in the schools
c. Prayer in the schools
d. Education in private schools

7. The Emancipation Proclamation issued by Lincoln stated that:

a. Slaves were free in areas of the Confederate states not held by the Union
b. The slave trade was illegal
c. Slaves who fled to Canada would be protected
d. Slavery was abolished in the Union

8. The purpose of the authors of the Federalist Papers was to:

a. Establish a strong, free press in the colonies
b. Confirm George Washington's election as the first president
c. Win foreign approval for the Revolutionary War
d. Gain ratification of the U.S. Constitution

9. Sputnik was the name given to the first:

a. Telecommunications system
b. Animal to travel into space
c. Hydrogen bomb
d. Man-made satellite

10. The Missouri Compromise was the act that:

a. Funded the Lewis and Clark expedition on the upper Missouri River
b. Granted statehood to Missouri but denied the admission of any other states
c. Settled the boundary dispute between Missouri and Kansas
d. Admitted Maine into the Union as a free state and Missouri as a slave state

11. Which document established the division of powers between the states and the federal government?

a. The Marshall Plan
b. The Constitution
c. The Declaration of Independence
d. The Articles of Confederation

12. When was Thomas Jefferson president?

a. 1780-1800
b. 1800-1820
c. 1820-1840
d. 1840-1860
e. 1860-1880

13. What was the lowest point in American fortunes in the Revolutionary War?

a. Saratoga
b. Bunker Hill
c. Valley Forge
d. Fort Ticonderoga

14. In his farewell address, President George Washington warned against the danger of:

a. Expanding into territories beyond the Appalachian Mountains
b. Having war with Spain over Mexico
c. Entering into permanent alliances with foreign governments
d. Building a standing army and strong navy

15. The Monroe Doctrine declared that:

a. The American blockade of Cuba was in accord with international law
b. Europe should not acquire new territories in Western Hemisphere
c. Trade with China should be open to all Western nations
d. The annexation of the Philippines was legitimate

16. Who was the European who traveled in the United States and wrote down perceptive comments about what he saw in Democracy in America?

a. Lafayette
b. Tocqueville
c. Crevecoeur
d. Napoleon

17. Identify Snoop Doggy Dog.

a. A rap singer
b. Cartoon by Charles Schultz
c. A mystery series
d. A jazz pianist

18. Abraham Lincoln was president between:

a. 1780-1800
b. 1800-1820
c. 1820-1840
d. 1840-1860
e. 1860-1880

19. Who was the American general at Yorktown?

a. William T. Sherman
b. Ulysses S. Grant
c. Douglas McArthur
d. George Washington

20. John Marshall was the author of:

a. Roe v. Wade
b. Dred Scott v. Kansas
c. Marbury v. Madison
d. Brown v. Board of Education

21. Who was the Father of the Constitution?

a. George Washington
b. Thomas Jefferson
c. Benjamin Franklin
d. James Madison

22. Who said, I regret that I have only one life to give for my country?

a. John F. Kennedy
b. Benedict Arnold
c. John Brown
d. Nathan Hale

23. What was the source of the following phrase: Government of the people, by the people, for the people?

a. The speech: I have a Dream
b. Declaration of Independence
c. U.S. Constitution
d. Gettysburg Address

24. Who was the second president of the U.S.?

a. Thomas Jefferson
b. James Madison
c. John Adams
d. Benjamin Franklin

25. Who was president when the U.S. purchased the Panama Canal?

a. Theodore Roosevelt
b. Jimmy Carter
c. Franklin D. Roosevelt
d. Woodrow Wilson

26. Who was the leading advocate for the U.S. entry into the League of Nations?

a. George C. Marshall
b. Woodrow Wilson
c. Henry Cabot Lodge
d. Eleanor Roosevelt

27. Who said, "Speak softly but carry a big stick"?

a. William T. Sherman
b. Sitting Bull
c. John D. Rockefeller
d. Theodore Roosevelt

28. The Battle of the Bulge occurred during:

a. The Vietnam War
b. World War II
c. World War I
d. The Civil War

29. Which of the following was a prominent leader of the Abolitionist Movement?

a. Malcolm X
b. Martin Luther King Jr.
c. W.E.B. Du Bois
d. Frederick Douglass

30. Who was the president of the United States at the beginning of the Korean War?

a. John F. Kennedy
b. Franklin D. Roosevelt
c. Dwight Eisenhower
d. Harry Truman

31. When the United States entered World War II, which two major nations were allied with Germany?

a. Italy and Japan
b. Italy and Poland
c. Italy and Russia
d. Russia and Japan

32. Social legislation passed under President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society program included:

a. The Sherman Antitrust Act
b. The Voting Rights Act
c. The Tennessee Valley Authority
d. The Civilian Conservation Corps

33. Who was First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen?

a. George Washington
b. Woodrow Wilson
c. Dwight Eisenhower
d. Abraham Lincoln

34. Who was the leader of the Soviet Union when the United States entered World War II?

a. Peter Ustinov
b. Nikita Khrushchev
c. Marshal Tito
d. Joseph Stalin

This study was based on telephone interviews conducted by the Center for Survey Research and Analysis at the University of Connecticut in December 1999.

ANSWERS 1999 High School History Quiz

The American Council of Trustees and Alumni, a Washington-based nonprofit group that promotes liberal-arts study, posed 34 high-school level questions randomly to 556 seniors at 55 leading colleges and universities, including Harvard, Princeton and Brown. Only one student answered all the questions correctly, and the average score was 53 percent.

1. When was the Civil War?

c. 1850-1900
60% of the respondents answered this correctly.

2. Who said Give me liberty or give me death?"

c. Patrick Henry
66% of the respondents answered this correctly.

3. What is the Magna Carta?

a. The foundation of the British parliamentary system
56% of the respondents answered this correctly.

4. The term Reconstruction refers to

c. Readmission of the Confederate states and the protection of the rights of black citizens
29% of the respondents answered this correctly.

5. Are Beavis and Butthead...

b. Television cartoon characters
99% of the respondents answered this correctly.

6. The Scopes trial was about:

b. Teaching evolution in the schools
61% of the respondents answered this correctly.

7. The Emancipation Proclamation issued by Lincoln stated that:

a. Slaves were free in areas of the Confederate states not held by the Union
26% of the respondents answered this correctly.

8. The purpose of the authors of the Federalist Papers was to:

d. Gain ratification of the U.S. Constitution
53% of the respondents answered this correctly.

9. Sputnik was the name given to the first:

d. Man-made satellite
89% of the respondents answered this correctly.

10. The Missouri Compromise was the act that:

d. Admitted Maine into the Union as a free state and Missouri as a slave state
52% of the respondents answered this correctly.

11. Which document established the division of powers between the states and the federal government?

b. The Constitution
60% of the respondents answered this correctly.

12. When was Thomas Jefferson president?

b. 1800-1820
45% of the respondents answered this correctly.

13. What was the lowest point in American fortunes in the Revolutionary War?

c. Valley Forge
38% of the respondents answered this correctly.

14. In his farewell address, President George Washington warned against the danger of:

c. Entering into permanent alliances with foreign governments
52% of the respondents answered this correctly.

15. The Monroe Doctrine declared that:

b. Europe should not acquire new territories in Western Hemisphere
62% of the respondents answered this correctly.

16. Who was the European who traveled in the United States and wrote down perceptive comments about what he saw in Democracy in America?

b. Tocqueville
49% of the respondents answered this correctly.

17. Identify Snoop Doggy Dog.

a. A rap singer
98% of the respondents answered this correctly.

18. Abraham Lincoln was president between:

e. 1860-1880
44% of the respondents answered this correctly.

19. Who was the American general at Yorktown?

d. George Washington
34% of the respondents answered this correctly.

20. John Marshall was the author of:

c. Marbury v. Madison
33% of the respondents answered this correctly.

21. Who was the Father of the Constitution?

d. James Madison
23% of the respondents answered this correctly.

22. Who said, I regret that I have only one life to give for my country?

d. Nathan Hale
40% of the respondents answered this correctly.

23. What was the source of the following phrase: "Government of the people, by the people, for the people?"

d. Gettysburg Address
22% of the respondents answered this correctly.

24. Who was the second president of the U.S.?

c. John Adams
73% of the respondents answered this correctly.

25. Who was president when the U.S. purchased the Panama Canal?

a. Theodore Roosevelt
53% of the respondents answered this correctly.

26. Who was the leading advocate for the U.S. entry into the League of Nations?

b. Woodrow Wilson
69% of the respondents answered this correctly.

27. Who said, "Speak softly but carry a big stick"?

d. Theodore Roosevelt
70% of the respondents answered this correctly.

28. The Battle of the Bulge occurred during:

b. World War II
37% of the respondents answered this correctly.

29. Which of the following was a prominent leader of the Abolitionist Movement?

d. Frederick Douglass
73% of the respondents answered this correctly.

30. Who was the president of the United States at the beginning of the Korean War?

d. Harry Truman
35% of the respondents answered this correctly.

31. When the United States entered World War II, which two major nations were allied with Germany?

a. Italy and Japan
67% of the respondents answered this correctly.

32. Social legislation passed under President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society program included:

b. The Voting Rights Act
30% of the respondents answered this correctly.

33. Who was "First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen"?

a. George Washington
42% of the respondents answered this correctly.

34. Who was the leader of the Soviet Union when the United States entered World War II?

d. Joseph Stalin
72% of the respondents answered this correctly.

This study was based on telephone interviews conducted by the Center for Survey Research and Analysis at the University of Connecticut in December 1999.

Go Read Teachers are Idiots

"I was born in Boston, New England, and owe my first instructions in literature to the free grammar schools established there. I therefore give one hundred pounds sterling to my executors, to be by them, the survivors or survivor of them, paid over to the managers or directors of the free schools in my native town of Boston, to be by them, or by those person or persons, who shall have the superintendance and management of the said schools, put out to interest, and so continued at interest forever, which interest annually shall be laid out in silver medals, and given as honorary rewards annually by the directors of the said free schools belonging to the said town, in such manner as to the discretion of the selectmen of the said town shall seem meet."
-- Last Will and Testement of Benjamin Franklin (1789)
<http://sln.fi.edu/franklin/family/lastwill.html>

 

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