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computer wonder women and Digital Diva's: Women and Their Role in the Development of the Modern Computer

The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don’t have any. ~ Alice Walker


Computer Wonder Women:
Find the Mother of the Internet

2016 - 70 years ago, these six Philly women became the world's first digital computer programmers on the first ever electronic general-purpose computer: ENIAC, the world's first digital computer, unveiled 70 years ago Sunday at the University of Pennsylvania, had six primary programmers: Kay McNulty, Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Marlyn Wescoff, Fran Bilas and Ruth Lichterman. They were initially called "operators." Without any real training, they learned what it took to make ENIAC work – and made it a humming success. Their contributions were overlooked for decades.

The Army wanted women with
mathematics degrees to
HAND CALCULATE the firing trajectories
of artillery for the war effort.



"Don't worry your pretty little head over it." NOT



Computer Science Teachers Association dedicated to k12 programming education.
Dr. Mark R. Nelson, Executive Director, and the CSTA Board of Directors
Get the Cyber Teacher Certificate Issued by the Computer Science Teachers Association

Bletchley Park and the Enigma code: The women who helped win the war. The Bletchley women came from far and wide, volunteers at first and then conscripts, as the whole population became mobilised. Broadcaster and historian Tessa Dunlop has found nine of them still living, sprightly women in their 90s, ranging from Pamela Rose, a showgirl and actress about to make her West End debut before duty called, to the mathematician Ann Williamson, by way of the exotic Georgette and Doris Moller, sisters who had spent a year escaping to Britain across occupied Europe.  Bletchley girls were employed in their hundreds to transcribe intercepted German radio messages. The posting had initially been seen as glam, as Michael Smith relates, the preserve of debs – debutantes, high-born young ladies presented at court age 16, to be married off during the social "season" – whose mothers simply rang up Admiral Denniston, the Bletchley commander, to get their daughters a placement.

Dame Stephanie Shirley: why do ambitious women have flat heads. Very inspiring talk.

NPR The Forgotten Female Programmers Who Created Modern Tech If your image of a computer programmer is a young man, there's a good reason: It's true. Recently, many big tech companies revealed how few of their female employees worked in programming and technical jobs. Google had some of the highest rates: 17 percent of its technical staff is female. It wasn't always this way. Decades ago, it was women who pioneered computer programming — but too often, that's a part of history that even the smartest people don't know.

Project Y Computing an iPad/iPhone app that tells the story of women working in the Manhattan Project during WW II. Apparently these women were called "computresses".
Marge Asprey was at Los Alamos Lab in 1973 in the Weapons Physics group, T-2. Soon after she had her 60th birthday and got her pilot's license in the same month, and recieved her M.S. degree. She needed her pilot's license so she could fly their small plane to Albuquerque several times a week to finish her PhD at the University of New Mexico.
There were just three of women in the "Tiger Team" which had the task of doing calculations on CDC 6600's (later 6700's and Crays) to predict the yield of nuclear tests in Nevada. There were just three of us working on this project - -the third was Clarence Lee who was half American-Indian. That was the best job I ever had in my 55 years of computing. > > By the way, Marge's daughter Peggy is a member of Systers. > > Lucy Carruthers -- recently retired from the > Research Computing Group at the University of Arizona > >

1/28/15 Grace Hopper The Queen of Code
You probably don’t know the name Grace Hopper, but you should. As a rear admiral in the U.S. Navy, Hopper worked on the first computer, the Harvard Mark 1. And she headed the team that created the first compiler, which led to the creation of COBOL, a programming language that by the year 2000 accounted for 70 percent of all actively used code.

The U.S. Naval Academy will name its future cyber building after Grace Hopper, a pioneering computer scientist and U.S. Navy rear admiral, the academy's superintendent. Vice Adm. Ted Carter made the announcement at the academy's "Athena Conference: Heroines of the past, present and future," which is marking the 40th anniversary of women's admission to the academy. The cyber facility, which will be called Hopper Hall, will be the first building named after a woman at the three main service academies. Often referred to as "Amazing Grace" and the mother of computing, Hopper joined the U.S. Navy Reserve during World War II. She later worked on a team to develop the UNIVAC computer and convert mathematic code into language. That led to developing the first compiler in 1952, which led to the creation of COBOL. Carter said Hopper also wanted to be known for training men and women in the Navy.

Margaret Hamilton, lead software engineer, Project Apollo
Margaret Hamilton earned her BA in math from Earlham College, but obviously learned about programming on the job—there was no other way. In the photo above, she is standing in front of the printouts of the code for the Apollo guidance system, a lot of which she wrote and which she oversaw. She was all of 31 when the Apollo 11 lunar module landed on the moon, running her code. (Apollo 11 was able to land at all only because she designed the software robustly enough to handle buffer overflows and cycle-stealing.)  She’s now a tech CEO and won the ‘86 Lovelace Award and the NASA Exceptional Space Act Award.

Hidden Figures based on the incredible untold true story of Katherine G. Johnson (Taraji P. Henson), Dorothy Vaughan (Octavia Spencer) and Mary Jackson (Janelle Monáe)—brilliant African-American women working at NASA, who served as the brains behind one of the greatest operations in history: the launch of astronaut John Glenn into orbit, a stunning achievement that restored the nation’s confidence, turned around the Space Race, and galvanized the world. The visionary trio crossed all gender and race lines to inspire generations to dream big.


Women in Tech - The Missing Force: Karen Catlin



She found her first bug in 1946,
when will you find yours?

Grace Hopper's finding of the "bug" on code


The first computer was a women who computes.

11/2/14 Mary Shaw Receives National Medal of Technology and Innovation Highest U.S. Honor for Technological Progress Goes to Software Engineering Pioneer. Dr. Shaw is a leader in software engineering research whose work on software architecture — the large-scale structure of software systems — helped establish it as a recognized discipline. Selecting an appropriate architecture is now recognized as a critical step in the engineering of complex software systems for everything from the anti-lock braking systems in cars to the international banking system. She also is an educational innovator who has developed computer science curricula from the introductory to the doctoral level, including graduate programs targeted at software professionals. Mary is one of Carnegie Mellon's earliest Ph.D. graduates in computer science in 1972, is a faculty member in the Institute for Software Research Computer Science Department and the Human-Computer Interaction Institute.

FYI Mary and Dave Farber "grandfather of the internet" happen to be good friends!



Data on faculty salaries for faculty in computer science and computer engineering departments in North America is included in the annual Taulbee Survey of the Computing Research Association the principal source of information on the enrollment, production, and employment of Ph.D.s in computer science and computer engineering (CS & CE) and in providing salary and demographic data for faculty in CS & CE in North America. Statistics given include gender and ethnicity breakdowns. This material is toward the end of the report. There are extensive breakdowns by type of university. Salaries are not broken down by gender, but other information in the report shows gender distribution of positions. The front part of the report is on student enrollment. How Much Are You Worth may also be of interest because you can find out what money the men are getting. It doesn't apply to all Majors, countries or universities. BUT it's worth checking out.

Educational CyberPlayGround Computer Wonder Women

What you can do to help GRRLS get into technology!
Here are all kinds of resources, mentoring programs, projects, and links for helping girls using science, math, technology, to cross that digital divide.
By 2020, the U.S. Department of Labor expects there will be 1.4 million computer-specialist job openings. But while women make up 57 percent of overall college graduates, they only account for 12 percent of computer science graduates today. So what are tech companies doing to get young women excited about coding? Bloomberg's Emily Chang looks at how Twitter is teaming up with one non-profit, Girls Who Code, to train the next generation of female engineers.




Find the Mother of the Internet

Women Computers 1891 - Ada Lovelace
The world's first programmer, Lovelace created technical notes for the Analytical Engine conceived by Charles Babbage. Computer geeks on opposite ends of the Earth have found the original sketch of the world's first programmer. Born December 10, 1815, Ada Lovelace is perhaps best known for her contributions toward Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine, Designed but never actually built until 1991, the Analytical Engine is in many ways one of the ancestors of today's computer systems. In a story worthy of a Hollywood movie, an Army sergeant in Tajikistan and a programmer in Texas resurrected the legend of Ada Lovelace by buying up her nearly 150-year-old sketch portrait on eBay. Augusta Ada, Countess of Lovelace, was the daughter of poet Lord Byron.

The Forgotten Female Programmers who invented modern Tech.
Walter Isaacson begins his new book,The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution, with her story.The computer language ADA was named after her in recognition of her pioneering work with Charles Babbage.
In her article, Lovelace expresses a vision for his machine that goes beyond calculations. She envisioned that "a computer can do anything that can be noted logically," explains Isaacson. "Words, pictures and music, not just numbers. She understands how you take an instruction set and load it into the machine, and she even does an example, which is programming Bernoulli numbers, an incredibly complicated sequence of numbers."

Excellent article about Phillipa Fawcett who, in 1890, placed first in the University of Cambridge mathematical examinations.

Rear Admiral Grace Hopper was one of the first computer programmers ever (the Harvard Mark I calculator (1943)) and one of the designers of COBOL (gasp!) She coined the term "debugging" for removing errors from computer programs. A legend in computer science. Here she is chatting to a TV show host on 2 October 1986 (taped from a repeat broadcast in the early '90s).

Grace Hopper Explains Nanoseconds


Computer Wonder Women Jean Jean Jennings Bartik - Video was one of the original ENIAC programmers and a syster, was made a fellow of the Computer History Museum on 10/21/08 (her co-inductees were Bob Metcalfe, inventor of the ethernet, and Linus Torvalds, creator of Linux. Jean told stories about how she left a safe life in rural Missouri for the adventure of working for Aberdeen Proving Grounds as a "computer" (a woman who computes ballistic trajectories), and then was chosen to be one of the 6 women who were to program the first electro-mechanical computer. They were given nothing more than block diagrams of this huge beast, and they had to invent some of the basic constructs of programming. There were some great stories of how they learned how the ENIAC worked, how they fixed bugs, and then how they were treated like "refrigerator ladies" who were just around to add a little sex appeal to the photos. Jean later worked on making a stored program version of the ENIAC, and worked with Eckert and Mauchly in their computer company.
She talked about experiencing extreme sexism when she went to Remington-Rand (which was really a typewriter company trying to get into computers). Jean quoted Betty Holbertonsaying "The ENIAC was a son-of-a-bitch to program"). ENIAC was over 700 square feet in size, had 18,000 vacuum tubes, and weighed 30 tons.
Jean was also inducted into the Hall of Fame Women in Technology International, along with the other original ENIAC programmers. You can donate to Kathy Kleiman's documentary project on the women of the ENIAC.

Kathleen Mauchly Antonelli (ne. McNulty), died 4/20/06.  Kathleen was one of the 6 women programmers of the ENIAC, a resident of the Philadelphia area and lecturer at Chestnut Hill College Philadelphia, PA was an inspiration to many.

Miss Eleanor Krawitz - Tabulating Supervisor
Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory
Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949

As Muriel Cooper saw things, the ruling metaphor for the computer age should be the "information landscape," not the "information highway."
Rather than cutting a linear path through a forest of data, computers give us the ability to fly through three-dimensional landscapes with constellations of interconnected information spreading around us in all directions. In 1952, Cooper began her career in graphic design at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After taking several years off to run her own graphics studio in Boston, she joined the MIT Press as its first art director (prior to this, she had collaborated with the MIT Press to design its world-famous logo). In 1974, Cooper began teaching a new subject at MIT called "messages and means," which focused on the relationship between graphics and technology. These ideas eventually led her to cofound and direct MIT's Visible Language Workshop. When Cooper showed the latest work of the VLW at the TED 5 conference in February 1994, no less than Bill Gates of Microsoft personally asked for a copy of the presentation. As Nicholas Negroponte, director of the Media Lab comments, "The impact of Muriel's work can be summed up in two words: Beyond Windows. It will be seen as the turning point in interface design. She has broken the flatland of overlapping opaque rectangles with the idea of a galactic universe."

2006 - Joanna Rutkowska
Polish researcher Joanna Rutkowska also used the spotlight of the 2006 Black Hat Briefings to showcase new research into rootkits and stealthy malware. In a standing-room-only presentation, she dismantled the new driver-signing mechanism in Windows Vista to plant a rootkit on the operating system and also introduced the world to "Blue Pill," a virtual machine rootkit that remains "100 percent undetectable," even on Windows Vista x64 systems.
In 2006, Rutkowska also pinpointed inherent weaknesses in anti-virus software; warned that the major operating system vendors are not yet ready for hardware virtualization technology and confirmed fears that stealth malware in the operating system's biggest security threat.

ACM Turing Winner Fran Allen says software is falling behind hardware capabilities.

Laurie Spiegel The Early Computer Arts at Bell Labs




1) When Computers Were Human,
3 Generations of Human Computers
- Grandmother Blanch Ocain 1920's, Her son Thomas Greer 1950's, then her grandson David Allen Greer 1980's.

2) Eniac Built In WWII lead to Computers & The History of the Internet Movie

Computers and Women from the 60's


Radia Perlman, Jean Jennings Bartik, Kay McNulty Mauchly Antonelli, John Mauchly, Presper Eckert , Betty Snyder, Holberton, punchcard, mainframe, Eniac, Univac, Edvac, Ordvac, Brlesc-1, Cobal, Fortran, Rear Admiral Dr. Grace Murray Hopper, Hedy Lamarr, Dr. Dorothy E. Denning, Anita Jones, Esther Dysen, Joan Korenman, Deborah Estrin, Hackers, Crackers, Phreaks, Natasha Grigori, Carmin Karasic, Gigabyte, Raven Alder, Blueberry,Colleen Card, RosieX, Susan Thunder, St. Jude, Jennifer Grannick, Courtnee, viXen900, Chainsawkitten, Gail Thackeray, Joanna Rutkowska,and Anita Borg


Eniac Programmers Project Honoring Computer Pioneers and Preserving Their Stories

Teachers | Women and Development of Computers - women and computers, girls and computers, history of computers, women and technology

Cheltenham High School Computer Club 1970

Wang Computer in Cheltenham High School, Wyncote PA - From my year book. copyright 1970

The World's First Disc Drive & Notice the Computer Wonder Woman!

Computer Wonder Women Educational CyberPlayGround

This is a 4.4 Meg Hard Disk in 1956.
In September 1956 IBM launched the 305 RAMAC, the first computer with a hard disk drive (HDD). The HDD weighed over a ton and stored 4.4MB of data.

Start appreciating your 4 GB memory stick!

Computer Wonder Women Educational cyberPlayground Women Hacker Comic - A webcomic of romance, sarcasm, math, and language.

World's Best Hackers

1. Susan Headley - Nationality: American

2. Natasha Grigori - Nationality: American

3. Joanna Rutkowska - Nationality: Russian

4. Ying Cracker - Nationality: Chinese

5. Jude Milhon - Nationality: American
Excellent definition of hacking: "clever circumvention of imposed limits" (Jude Milhon).
"Hacking is the clever circumvention of imposed limits, whether imposed by your government, your IP server, your personality"

6. Kristina Svechinskaya - Nationality: Russian

7. Xiao Tian - Nationality: Chinese

8. Gigabyte - Nationality: Belgian

9. Adeanna Cooke - Nationality: American

10. Raven Adler - Nationality: American

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