Educational CyberPlayGround ®☰ Menu

How Effective is Technology in the Schools?

Educaton is a Business
Digital Diploma Mills:
The Automation of Higher Education history of how this got started & the connections

Wrestling the Military-Academic Complex
By Nicholas Turse, May 2, 2004

The reach of the military-academic complex goes far beyond schools like West Point and Annapolis; today almost 350 civilian universities conduct Pentagon-funded research.

A joint study by researchers at Boston College and the University of Massachusetts found the more students used computers to write school papers, the higher they scored on the state's English/Language Arts exam. 
The study also found the more students used computers to prepare PowerPoint presentations, surf the Web or play games, chat with friends or create PowerPoint presentations, the worse they did on the non-computerized exam.  Researchers said the study provides evidence that investments in computers can have positive effects on student achievement, and that teachers and students must be thoughtful about how computers are used and what types of learning they expect to impact the non-computerized exam. 

Rates of Computer and Internet Use by Children in Nursery School and Students in Kindergarten Through Twelfth Grade: 2003
Description: This Issue Brief describes the percentage of students in grades 12 or below who used computers or the Internet in 2003. The Brief highlights the fact that computer and Internet use is commonplace and begins early. Even before kindergarten, a majority of children in nursery school use computers and, and 23 percent use the Internet.


Collaboration, Sharing and Society Teaching, Learning and Technical Considerations From An Analysis of WebCT, BSCW, and BlackBoard May, 2000 by Paul Pavlik


The Evaluation Exchange
The Harvard Family Research Project has just released The Fall 2004 issue of its The Evaluation Exchange periodical. The new issue explores the contribution of technology to evaluation practice, with articles centering on four key areas in which evaluators are using technology: data collection and analysis, collaboration, knowledge mobilization, and evaluation capacity building. Rounding out the issue is a special feature on the role technology plays in fostering youth civic engagement and in evaluating programs for youth.

2003 Total school spending on computer technology, in the '90s alone, was estimated at $70 billion. And the ongoing Federal “e-rate” program continues to pump $2.25 billion each year into Internet networks for poor schools.

Technology Assessment Compilation

How to Integrate Technology A Retrospective on Twenty Years of Education Technology Policy
A report from the Center for Children and Technology (CCT) finds a striking consensus in past recommendations for the effective integration of technology in schools and offers advice about recommendations for the next 20 years. "A Retrospective on Twenty Years of Education Technology Policy" synthesizes the findings of more than 25 major studies and policy papers, beginning with "A Nation at Risk" in 1983. In examining past research and policy work on technology's role in education, CCT researchers identified a conceptual framework that offers substantial guidance for striking a balance between the demands of improving practice over time and pressing public concerns such as accountability and equity. According to the report, the\focus of educational technologists and researchers has shifted away from an emphasis on "single input" strategies, such as the wiring of schools, to an appreciation of the multiple dimensions of the educational system that influence the way technology is used. "The lessons learned in this report can help to guide future educational technology policy so that we are building on past successes and continually working to improve teaching and learning," said CCT Director Margaret Honey. Forum Summary

Sep 18, 1997 Texas educator: Forget books, let's buy computers


Consortium for School Networking (CoSN)

The Role of Online Communications in Schools:
A National Study 1996

This study "demonstrates that students with online access perform better. The study, conducted by CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology), an independent research and development organization, and sponsored by the Scholastic Network and Council of the Great City Schools, isolates the impact of online use and measures its effect on student learning in the classroom. The study compared the work of 500 students in fourth-grade and sixth-grade classes in 7 urban school districts (Chicago, Dayton, Detroit, Memphis, Miami, Oakland, and Washington DC) - half with online access and half without." 

The STS curricular framework and worksheets offered strategies to help students identify key elements of their topic, to organize the information they found into categories, and to structure their ideas into a compelling presentation for their project. Many teachers reported in their phone interview that the curriculum framework, lesson plans, activities, and worksheets for the Civil Rights Unit were useful. In addition, teachers in the experimental group relayed the importance of online communications in supporting their teaching efforts. They spoke about the help they received from peers and experts online, the community-building interactions they had with other teachers and community mentors, and the benefits of the wide range of resources available on Scholastic Network and the Internet. As a result, teachers themselves became engaged in learning.


Conducted by: CAST (Center for Applied Special Technology) 
Rginald Grgoire inc.

Robert Bracewell

Thrse Laferrire

August 1st, 1996 For additional information, contact: Sari Follansbee, Ed.D., Director of Curriculum


DOCUMENTARY REVIEW A collaboration of Laval University and McGill University 
Rginald Grgoire inc., Robert Bracewell, Thrse Laferrire, August 1st, 1996


The perspective taken by educational researchers and practitioners concerning the role of computer-based learning technologies in the classroom has shifted significantly in the past decade. The perspective of the early 1980's can be characterized as 'the computer as an agent of change' (see Mehan, 1989). That is, the technology was expected to have a major and direct impact on student learning and skill acquisition. This was particularly the case for the subject areas of writing (where word-processing software was immediately available) and of mathematics (where various computer-based Logo software was widely available) (see for example, Daiute, 1983; Rubin and Bruce, 1985). 

The at-best mixed results that were obtained for the effects of the technology on learning reduced expectations for the technology (see Hawisher, 1989), and led to a perspective that can be characterized as 'the computer as a tool'. That is, the technology can be an important component of bring about new and better kinds of learning; but as with all tools, effective use of the technology is embedded withinpractices and activities that realize its functionality for specific purposes and situations. The investigation of the relationship between practices, purposes, and situations and computer-based learning technologies has been the general driving force motivating the recent research reviewed below.

for elementary

The student learning that is examined in light of the new technologies refers to languages, math, the humanities, natural sciences, the arts 


The development of various intellectual skills

New technologies have the power to stimulate the development of intellectual skills such as reasoning and problem solving ability, learning how to learn, and creativity.


Specificity of what is learned using the new technologies 

The new technologies can contribute in several ways to better learning in various subjects and to the development of various skills and attitudes. The nature and breadth of learning depends on previously acquired knowledge, and on the type of the learning activities using technology.

2. Student Motivation


Interest in a learning activity

Most students show greater spontaneous interest in a learning activity that uses a new technology than in the traditional approaches in class.


The attention span or concentration that the majority of students are willing to devote to learning activities is greater when they use a new technology than when they are in a traditional setting using traditional resources.

3. Relationship of Students to Knowledge


Developing research spirit

The new technologies have the power to stimulate the search for more extensive information on a subject, a more satisfying solution to a problem, and more generally, a greater number of relationships among various pieces of knowledge or data.


Broader cooperation among individuals

The use of new technologies promotes cooperation among students in the same class and among students or classes in different schools, near or far, for the purpose of making them more aware of other realities, accessing relevant knowledge not strictly defined in advance, and executing projects with a genuine relevance for the students themselves, and possibly for other people.


More integrated and better assimilated learning

The potential for simulation, virtual manipulation, rapid merging of a wide variety of data, graphic representation and other functions provided by the new technologies contributes to a linkage of knowledge with various aspects of the person, thereby ensuring more thorough assimilation of the many things learned.



Information on new instructional resources andavailability of support for their use

Through the new technologies, teachers quickly obtain information on the availability and value of a very diverse selection of instructional resources, and also often benefit from support for their use.


Teacher cooperation with other people

The new technologies facilitate the teacher's cooperation with colleagues as well as other people inside or outside the school system for planning or development of learning activities intended for students.


The orientation of planning

The teacher's planning for teaching requires great harmony between his or her orientation towards teaching, expected learning outcomes, and the characteristics of the technologies he or she utilizes. Hence, the likelihood of positive results is enhanced when the teacher places great importance on the development and arrangement of activities whose execution requires students to perform real work and cooperate with other students 

5. Intervention with a Group of Students

The documentation consulted is virtually unanimous in stating that effective use of new technologies changes the function and work of teachers in the classroom. Many terms are used to describe the nature and scope of this change but almost all convey at least two ideas: part of the transfer of information inherent in teaching is shifted from the teacher to the technological media, and the teacher has moretime to support each student in the individual process of discovery and mastery of knowledge, skills and attitudes. 

This change, which is also influenced by other factors, leads to a different concept of teaching and learning, which become more akin to ongoing research and at the same time an eminently personal, shared approach.

These are the two subthemes examined in relation to the teacher's work with a group of students in an educational environment where new technologies play a genuine role.


Different relationships between teachers and students

If the new technologies are used in such a way as to exploit their potential, the teacher interacts with students much more than in a traditional classroom, as a facilitator, a mentor, a guide to thediscovery and gradual mastery of knowledge, skills and attitudes. 


A different vision of teaching and learning

In a context where new technologies play an important role, teachers begin to view knowledge less and less as a series of facts to be transferred and more and more as a process of continuous research in which they share the difficulties and results with their students.

6. Assessment of Learning

For a time, the new technologies were often used to support or even consolidate existing diagnoses and assessments of learning. With the arrival of the latest technologies, we are witnessing a different phenomenon: in many cases, it is the technologies themselves that are dictating the new forms of assessment, which are more flexible and much more respectful of what learning is, or are used to implement them. This at least is what emerges from the research that could be done. The following two observations present a brief summary of the findings of this research.


Assessment of learning

The new technologies foster a positive, close association of students with the assessment of their own learning, and uses and manages much more demanding assessment methods than is generally the case at present.


Diagnosing specific difficulties

By permitting rapid retracing of the various learning paths taken by a student, the new technologies facilitate detection by the teacher of this student's strong points as well as the specific difficulties the student encounters or prior incorrect or poorly assimilated learning.


ALTUN, ERALP H. (1996) Interactive Multimedia Systems and Technophobia : A Case Study of Student Anxiety in Regard to Gender and Ability Levels. See below International Conferences on Technology and Education, p. 308-310. 

ARROYO, C. (1992) What Is the Effect of Extensive Use of Computers On the Reading Achievement Scores of Seventh Grade Students. (Report No. CS 011-145). Chicago, IL : Chicago Public Schools. ERIC Document 353 544. 

BAKER, E., M. GEARHART AND J. HERMAN (1992) Evaluating the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow : 1990 Evaluation Study (Report to Apple Computer, inc.). Los Angeles : University of California, Center for the Study of Evaluation and Center for Technology Assessment. 

BAKER, E., M. GEARHART AND J. HERMAN (1994) Evaluating the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow. In E. L. Barker and H. F. O'Neil (Eds.), Technology Assessment in Education and Training (p. 172-197). Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 

BARKER, T. A. AND J. TORGESEN (1995) An Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Phonological Awareness With Below Average Readers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 13 (1), 80-103.

BARRON, LINDA C. AND ELIZABETH S. GOLDMAN (1994) Integrating Technology with Teacher Preparation. See below Means, Barbara, p. 81-110. 

BLACK, J., W. THALHEIMER, H. WILDER, D. DE SOTO AND P. PICARD (1994) Constructivist Design of Graphic Computer Simulations. (Report No. IR 016 713). Nashville, TN : Research and Theory Division. ERIC Document 373 703. 

BROWN, A. L. AND J. C. CAMPIONE (1996) Guided Discovery in a Community of Learners. In K. McGilly (Ed.), Classroom Lessons : Integrating Cognitive Theory and Classroom Practice (p. 229-270). Cambridge, MA : MIT Press. 

BROWNELL, GREGG AND JULIA MCARTHUR (1996) A Preliminary Report: Robotics and Collaborative Learning in a Sixth Grade Classroom. See below Robin, Bernard and Others, p. 270-273. 

BUTZIN, S. (1991)Project CHILD : Integrating Computers into the Elementary School. A Summative Evaluation. (Report No. IR 015 248). Tallahassee, FL : Center for Instructional Development and Services. ERIC Document 338 221. 

COGNITION AND TECHNOLOGY GROUP AT VANDERBILT (1991) Technology and the Design of Generative Learning Environments. Educational Technology, 31, 34-40. 

COGNITION AND TECHNOLOGY GROUP AT VANDERBILT (1996) From Visual Word Problems to Learning Communities : Changing Conceptions of Cognitive Research. In K. McGilly (Ed.), Classroom Lessons : Integrating Cognitive Theory and Classroom Practice (p. 157-200). Cambridge, MA : MIT Press. 

COGNITIVE ENRICHMENT NETWORK (1991) COGNET Follow Trough Education Model. Research Report : Studies of Impact on Children, Teachers and Parents, 1988-1991. (Report No. PS 020 468). Nashville, TN : Author. ERIC Document 343 720.

COLLINS, A. (1996) Design Issues for Learning Environments. In S. Vosniadou, E. De Corte, R. Glaser and H. Mandl (Eds.), International Perspectives on the Design of Technology Supported Learning Environments (p. 347-362). Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 

COLLINS, ALLAN (1991) The Role of Computer Technology in Restructuring Schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 73 (1), 28-36. 

DAIUTE, C. (1983) The Computer as Stylus and Audience. College Composition and Communication, 34, 134-145.

DWYER, DAVID (1994) Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow : What We've Learned. Educational Leadership, 51 (7), 4-10. 

DWYER, DAVID C., CATHY RINGSTAFF AND JUDY H. SANDHOLTZ (1991) Changes in Teachers' Beliefs and Practices in Technology-Rich Classrooms. Educational Leadership, 48 (8), 45-52.

EVANS, K. S. (1991) The Effects of a Metacognitive Computer Writing Tool on Classroom Learning Environment, Student Perceptions and Writing Ability. (Report No. CS 213 257). Bethesda, MD : National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. ERIC Document 344 212.

FORD, MARY JANE, VIRGINIA POE AND JUANITA COX (1995) Using CD-ROMS to Develop Automaticity and Fluency in Reading. See below Willis, Dee Anna and Others, p. 136-139. 

GREENLEAF, C. (1994) Technological Indeterminacy : The Role of Classroom Writing Practices and Pedagogy in Shaping Student Use of the Computer. Written Communication, 11 (1), 85-130. 

GUTHRIE, LARRY F. AND SUSAN RICHARDSON (1995) Turned On to Language Arts : Computer Literacy in the Primary Grades. Educational Leadership, 53 (2), 14-17. 

HASSELBRING, T. (1991) An Evaluation of Specific Videodisc Courseware on Student Learning in a Rural School Environment. (Report No. IR 015 255). Knoxville, TN : Tennessee Valley Authority. ERIC Document 338 225. 

HAWISHER, GAIL E. (1989) Research and Recommendations for Computers and Composition. In Gail E. Hawisher and Cynthia L. Selfe (Eds.), Critical Perspectives on Computers and Composition Instruction (p. 44-69). New York : Teachers College Press. 

HEIDMANN, WOLFGANG, WILLIAM D. WALDMAN WITH DR. FRANK A. MORETTI (1996) Using Multimedia in the Classroom. See below International Conferences on Technology and Education, p. 300-302. 

HENDERSON, R. AND E. LANDESMAN (1993) The Interactive Videodisc System in the Zone of Proximal Development : Academic Motivation and Learning Outcomes in Precalculus. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 9 (1), 29-43.

HERMAN, JOAN L. (1994) Evaluating the Effects of Technology in School Reform. See below Means, Barbara, p. 133-167. 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES ON TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATION (1996) Technology and Communications : Catalyst for Educational Change. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Technology and Education, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 17-20, 1996. Grand Prairie, TX : Author. 2 vol., 755 p. 

JACKSON, D., B. EDWARDS AND C. BERGER (1993) The Design of Software Tools for Meaningful Learning by Experience : Flexibility and Feedback. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 9 (3), 413-443.

JACOBSDOTTIR, S. AND S. HOOPER (1995) Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Learning : Effects of Text, Context, and Gender on Listening Comprehension and Motivation. Educational Technology Research and Development, 43 (4), 43-59. 

JONES, ITHEL (1994) The Effect of a Word Processor on the Written Composition of Second-Grade Pupils. Computers in the Schools, 11 (2), 43-54. 

JOHNSON-GENTILE, K., D. CLEMENTS AND M. BATTISTA (1994) Effects of Computer and Noncomputer Environments on Student's Conceptualizations of Geometric Notions. Journal of Educational Computing -- press space for more, use arrow keys to move, '?' for help, 'q' to quit. Research, 11 (2), 121-140. 

JORAM, E., E. WOODRUFF, M. BRYSON AND P. H. LINDSAY (1992) The Effects of Revising with a Word Processor on Written Communicartion. Research in the Teaching of English, 26 (2), 167-193. 

KOZMA, R. B., RUSSELL, J., JONES, T, MARX, N., & DAVIS, J. (1996). The Use of Multiple, Linked Representations to Facilitate Science Understanding. In S. Vosniadou, E. De Corte, R. Glaser & H. Mandl (Eds.), International perspectives on the design of technology supported learning environments (pp. 41-60). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbam Associates.

KULIK, C. C. & KULIK, J. A. (1991) Effectiveness of Computer-based Instruction : An Updated Analysis. Computers in Human Behaviour, 7, 75-94. 

LAFER, STEPHEN AND ANDREW MARKERT (1994) Authentic Learning Situations and the Potential of Lego TC Logo. Computers in the Schools, 11 (1), 79-94. 

LAJOIE, S. (1993) Computer Environments as Cognitive Tools for Enhancing Learning in Computers. In S. P. Lajoie and S. Derry (Eds.), Computers as Cognitive Tools (p. 261-288). Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 

LEI, TONY T. (1996) A Study of the Implementation of Computer Education in Public Schools. See above International Conferences on Technology and Education, vol. 1, p. 314-316. 

MARCH, T. (1993) Computer-Guided Writing : Developing Expert Characteristics in Novice Writers. (Report No CS 214 235). San Diego, CA : San Diego State University. ERIC Document 366 983. 

MCKINNON, DAVID H., C.J. PATRICK NOLAN AND KENNETH E. SINCLAIR (1996) The Freyberg Integrated Studies Project in New Zealand : A Longitudinal Study of Secondary Students' Attitudes Towards Computers, Their Motivation and Performance. See above International Conferences on Technology and Education, p. 463-465.

MCLELLAN, HILARY (1994) Interactions of Student Partners in a High School Astronomy Computer Lab. Computers in the Schools, 11 (1), 29-41.

MEANS, BARBARA (ED.) (1994) Technology and Education Reform. The Reality Behind the Promise. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass. XXIV et 232 p. 

MEANS, BARBARA AND KERRY OLSON (1994) Tomorrow's Schools : Technology and Reform in Partnership. See above Means, Barbara, p. 191-222. 

MEHAN, HUGH. (1989) Microcomputers in Classrooms : Educational Technology or Social Practice? Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 20 (1), 4-22. 

NEWMAN, DENIS (1994) Computer Networks : Opportunities or Obstacles? See above Means, Barbara, p. 57-80. 

O'NEIL, JOHN (1995) On Technology and Schools. A Conversation with Chris Dede. Educational Leadership, 53 (2), 6-12.

OWSTEN, R. D., S. MURPHY AND H. H. WIDEMAN (1992) The Effects of Word Processing on Student's Writing Quality and Revision Strategies. Research in the Teaching of English, 26 (3), 249-276. 

PADR"N YOLANDA N. AND HERSHOLT C. WAXMAN (1996) The Role of Technology in Improving Mathematics and Science for Students in Urban Schools. See above International Conferences on Technology and Education, p. 196-201. 

PELED, Z., E. PELED AND G. ALEXANDER (1994) An Ecological Approach for Information Technology Intervention, Evaluation, and Software Adoption Policies. In E. L. Barker and H. F. O'Neil (Eds.). Technology Assessment in Education and Training (p. 35-61). Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 

RAY STEG, D., I. LAZAR AND C. BOYCE (1994) A Cybernetic Approach to Early Education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 10 (1), 1-27.

REPMAN, J. (1993) Collaborative, Computer-based Learning : Cognitive and Affective Outcomes. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 9 (2), 149-163.

REUSSER, K. (1996) From Cognitive Modeling to the Design of Pedagogical Tools. In S. Vosnadiou, E. De Corte, R. Glaser and H. Mandl (Eds.), International Perspectives on the Design of Technology Supported Learning Environments (p. 81-104). Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

RIEL, M. (1985) The Computer Chronicles Newswire : A Functional Learning Environment for Acquiring Literacy Skills. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 1 (3), 317-337. 

RIEL, M. (1989) Telecommunications : A Tool for Reconnecting Kids with Society. In B. Feinstein and B. Kurshan (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Telecommunications in Education : Learners in the Global Village. Oregon : International Society for Technology. ERIC Document 328 233. 

RIEL, M. (1990) Computer-Mediated Communication : A Tool for Reconnecting Kids with Society. Interactive Learning Environments, 1 (4), 255-263. 

ROBIN, BERNARD AND OTHERS (EDS.) (1996) Technology and Teacher Education Annual, 1996. Proceedings of SITE 96. Seventh International Conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE), Phoenix, Arizona, March 13-16, 1996. Charlottesville, VA : Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. XVI et 1063 p.

RUBIN, ANDEE AND BERTRAM C. BRUCE (1985) QUILL : Reading and Writing with a Microcomputer. In B. Hutson (Ed.), Advances in Reading/Language Research, Vol. 3 (p. 97-117). Greenwich, CT : JAI Press.

SCARDAMALIA, M. AND C. BEREITER (1993) Technologies for Knowledge-Building Discourse. Communications of the ACM, 36 (5), 37-41. 

SCARDAMALIA, M., C. BEREITER, C. BRETT, P. J. BURTIS, C. CALHOUN AND N. SMITH LEA (1992) Educational Applications of a Networked Communal Database. Interactive Learning Environments, 2 (1), 45-71. 

SCARDAMALIA, M., C. BEREITER AND M. LAMON (1994) The CSILE Project : Trying to Bring the Classroom into World 3. In K. McGilly (Ed.), Classroom Lessons : Integrating Cognitive Theory and Classroom Practice (p. 201-228). Cambridge, MA : MIT Press. 

SEEVER, A. (1992) Middle Magnet School 1990-1991. (Report No. IR 015 634). Kansas, MO : Kansas City School District. ERIC Document 348 962. 

SEMEL, SUSAN F. (1992) The Dalton School. N. Y. : Peter Lang Publishing (American University Studies, Series XIV, Education, Vol. 34). XIX et 205 p. 

SHARP, D., J. BRANSFORD, S. GOLDMAN, S. RISKO AND N. VYE (1995) Dynamic Visual Support for Story Comprehension and Mental Model Building by Young, At-risk Children. Educational Technology Research and Development, 43 (4), 25-42. 

SHEINGOLD, KAREN AND JOHN FREDERIKSEN (1994) Using Technology to Support Innovative Assessment. See above Means, Barbara, p. 111-132.

SHERMAN, G. AND J. KLEIN (1995) The Effects of Cued Interaction and Ability Grouping during Cooperative Computer-Based Science Instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 43 (4), 5-24.

SILVER, N. AND T. REPA (1993) The Effect of Word Processing on the Quality of Writing and Self-Esteem of Secondary School English-as-a-second-language Students : Writing without Censure. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 9 (2), 265-283. 

SOOK-HI-KANG (1994-1995) Computer Simulations as a Framework for Critical Thinking Instruction. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 23 (3), 233-239. 

STEELMAN, J. (1994) Revision Strategies Employed by Middle Level Students Using Computers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 11 (2), 141-152.

UNDERWOOD, JEAN, SUE CAVENDISH AND TONY LAWSON (1996) Technology as a Tool for the Professional Development of Teachers. See above Robin, Bernard and Others, p. 955-958.

US CONGRESS, OFFICE OF TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT (1995) Teachers and Technology : Making the Connection. Washington, D.C. : Government Printing Office. IX et 292 p. See chapters I & II.

VAN DUSEN, LANI M. AND BLAINE R. WORTHEN (1995) Can Integrated Instructional Technology Transform the Classroom? Educational Leadership, 53 (2), 28-33.

WALLIS, CLAUDIA (1995) The Learning Revolution. What Wondrous Things Occur When a School Is Wired to the Max. Time, Special Issue, 145 (12), 49-51.

WEST, PETER (1995) With Computers, Apple Project Finds Less May Be More. Education Week. XV (11), 6. 

WILLIS, DEE ANNA AND OTHERS (EDS.) (1995) Technology and Teacher Education Annual, 1995. Proceedings of SITE 95. Sixth International Conference of the Society of Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE), San Antonio, Texas, March 22-25, 1995. Charlottesville, VA : Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. XVI et 909 p. ERIC Document 381 148.

WILSON, B., J. TESLOW, T. CYR AND R. HAMILTON (1994) Technology Making a Difference : The Peakview Elementary School Study. Syracuse, NY : ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. 

WRIGHT, PETER W. (1996) Integrating a Multimedia Approach into the Teaching of High School Physics. See above Robin, Bernard and Others, p. 281-285. 

YUSUF, M. M. (1994) Cognition of Fundamental Concepts in Geometry. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 10 (4), 349-371.

ZELLERMAYER, M., G. SALOMON AND T. GLOBERSON (1991) Enhancing Writing-Related Metacognitions through a Computerized Writing Partner. American Educational Research Journal, 28 (2), 373-391.

© Educational CyberPlayGround ® All rights reserved world wide.