GLOSSARY OF DISTANCE EDUCATION AND
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TERMS created 1997
Acronyms Being Spoken Aloud 2011
Then there are the various forms of "LOL" that teens use in regular parlance -- it's become a conjugable verb by now. And of course, there's the saltier acronym used by "WTF, Mom?!"
Arun Kumar Tripathi created 1997 The University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany
Acceptable Use Policy (AUP): A binding document signed by all users that explains the rules of Internet use at an institution.
Address: The identification of a physical or virtual distinct entity in a network. On the Internet, this network address is known as a URL, Uniform Resource Locator, e.g., http://www.gsh.org.
Amplitude: The amount of variety in a signal. Commonly thought of as the height of a wave.
Analog: Representation of coding of information in a continuous signal that varies in proportion to what is being represented, compared to digital, where information is coded into discrete numerical values. Voicen and video sources(microphones, cameras) produce analog information; electronic equipment produces digital information. Conventional telephone networks and transmissions have been analog, with modems needed to convert digital computer data to analog form for sending over the network. Analog networks are subject to interference, relatively low in reproduction quality, and not able to handle large quantities of data. The analog network is rapidly being replaced by a Digital Network.
Anonymous ftp A publicly-available Internet file site. Users must sign on as anonymous and enter their email address to connect to an anonymous ftp site.
Archie A program that locates files that are freely available on anonymous ftp sites across the Internet. To use Archie, telnet to one of these sites and login as archie.
Type help to obtain full instructions.
(ARPANET) Advanced Research Projects Agency Network: The first "Internet". Linked UCLA, Stanford and defense contractors beginning in the late 1960's. Retired in 1990 and its younger, brother, the Internet was brought on-line.
(ASCII) American Standard Code for Information Interchange: A standard for digital representation of letters, numbers, and control codes; understood by most computers.
Asynchronous: It means there is a lack of synchronization. A method of transmitting data over a network using a start bit at the beginning of a character and a stop bit at the end. The time intervak between characters may be varying lengths. In video, a signal is asynchronous when its timing differs from that of the system reference signal.
Asynchronous Distance Education: Education in which interaction between instructor and student does not take place simultaneously, e.g., traditional correspondence courses.
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode. High Speed (up to 155 Mbps), high bandwidth, low-delay, transport technology, integrating multiple data types (voice, video, and data), International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has selected ATM as the basis for the future broadband network because of its flexibility and suitability for both transmission and switching. It may be used in the phone and computer networks of the future. It is also a multiplexed information transfer technique of sending data in irregular time intervals using a code such as ASCII. ATM allows most modern computers to communicate with one another easily.
Audio Conference: Audio teleconference. An electronic meeting in which participants in different locations use telephones or audioconferencing equipment to interactively communicate with each other in real time.
Backbones: The Central network infrastructure of the Internet is often referred to as the backbone and its allows data to travel from one network to another.
Band: A range of frequencies between defined upper and lower limits.
Bandwidth: A Term used to describe how much data you can send through a connection to the Net. The taansmission capacity of a given medium, in terms of how much data the medium can transmit in a gievn amount of time. The greater the bandwidth, the faster the rate of data transmission. Information carrying capacity of a communication channel.
Baudrate: The speed of a modem measured in bits per second, 33.6Kbps is the current fastest speed.
Bit:An acronym for BInary digiT. It is the basic unit of information in the machine world. A bit is a digit in binary form and carries one of two values, 0 or 1.
Bitnet An autonomous network of academic and research sites. Browser Software that allows users to access and navigate the World Wide Web. Some Web browsers, such as Mosaic and Netscape, are graphical. Lynx is a text-based browser.
bps: Bits per second- a measurement of data transmission speed.
Broadband: A loose term used to describe a high bandwidth lines, usually a T-3 line, with 45Mps or higher
Browser: A Program which allows your computer to download and display documents from the World Wide Web. The two most popular browsers are Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. It is also a software that allows users to access and navigate the World Wide Web. Some Web browsers, such as Mosaic and Netscape, are graphical. Lynx is a text-based browser.
Bulletin Board Service (BBS): A forum for users to browse and exchange information. Computer BBSs are accessible by telephone via a personal computer and a modem. Many BBSs are small operations run by a single person that allow only several users to log on at the same time. Some are much larger and allow hundreds of users to login simultaneously to use the system. Huge, commercial examples are America Online, CompuServe, and Prodigy. For example, please visit at <http://www.tcworld.com/wwwboard/wwwboard.html >
Byte: A single computer character, generally eight bits. For example, the letter "G" in binary code is 01000111.
Cable Television: A broadband communications technology in which multiple television channels as well as audio and data signals are transmitted either one way or both ways through a direct by wire distribution system to single or multiple locations.
CD-i- Comapct Disc Interactive: A multimedia format that uses digital and optical laser technology to store and display text, video, still, and animated images. Not compatible with the CD-ROM format, CD-i uses a stand-alone player that connects directly to a television set.
CD-ROM, Compact Disc-Read Only Memory: A record like storage medium that uses digital and optical laser technology to store about 600Mb of text, pictures, and sound on a single disk. With newer versions (CD-ROMXA, CDTV, CD-i) animations and moving pictures can be retrieved from the discs.
(CGI) Common Gateway Interface: An interface between a Web site and a user. It allows forms, surveys and other documents to be filled on-line and the results automatically sent to the web site's UNIX server.
Codec (COder/DECoder): Device used to convert analog signals to digital signals for transmission and reconvert signals upon reception at the remote site while allowing for the signal to be compressed for less expensive transmission.
Commercial online services A company that, for a fee, allows computer users to dial in via modem to access its information and services, which can include Internet access. Examples are America Online, CompuServe, Delphi, and Prodigy.
Compressed Video: Video signals are downsized to allow travel along a smaller carrier.
Compression: Reducing the amount of visual information sent in a signal by only transmitting changes in action.
COM port: Communication or serial port on PCs usually used for a data communication interface
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI): Teaching process in which a computer is used to enhance the education of a student.
(CPU) Central Processing Unit: The component of a computer in which data processing takes place.
(CSU/DSU) Customer Service Unit/Digital Service Unit: Sometimes called a digital modem. It does not modulate or demodulate, but converts a computer's uni-polar digital signal to a bi-polar digital signal for transmission over ISDN lines.
Cyberspace: The nebulous "place" where humans interact over computer networks, same as virtual space.
Database: A computer holding large amounts of information that can be searched by an Internet user. A storehouse of information on the Net.
Desktop Video: The merger of video, telephone, and computer technologies for the purpose of delivering multimedia information and telecommunication capabilities at the individual computer workstation.
Dial-Up Network: Connection to a network (Internet) using a modem and telephone lines. Usually done with a commercial on-line service, e.g.,AOL, or a Internet Service Provider (ISP) e.g., NETCOM.
Digital: A data signal transmitted using discrete steps in voltage rather than frequency, as in an analog signal. Directory A list of files or other directories on a computer at an Internet site.
Directory: A list of files or other directories on a computer at an Internet site.
Distance Education: Conveying knowledge from a distance. The organizational framework and process of providing instruction at a distance. Distance education takes place when a teacher and student(s) are physically separated, and technology such that voice, video,data and/or print is used to bridge the instructional gap.
Distance Learning: The term Distance Learning is typically used describe video-enabled instruction, that means, it is integrated voice, data, and video transmissions) in college, university, medical school or kindergarten through the Twelfth grade environment. Distance Learning permits especially gifted teachers to reach an almost limitless number of students around the world.
Distribution System: Any program that can be received by a satellite antenna and distributed into several viewing areas.
Domain: It is the part of the Internet address that specifies your computer's location in the world. The address is written as a series of names separated by full stops. For example, the Domain name at Global SchoolHouse Foundation is www.gsh.org, this shows that Global SchoolHouse Foundation is an organization. The another example, www.statistik.uni-dortmund.de, it shows that Statistics faculty is in the University of Dortmund, and the last de shows that it is in (Deutschland) Germany. the german word for germany is (de)utschland. The Most common top level domains:
.edu Educations (US)
.net network resource
.com Commercial (US) www.aspensys.com
.org Organization (US)
.de (Code for Germany..)
.gov Public bodies..www.odci.gov/cia, //www.fbi.gov
.mil Military http://www.darpa.mil.us
.us (Code for United States)
Download: The process of taking information stored on the internet and copying it to your computer's hard disk, You will find yourself downloading the latest shareware www.search.com Transfer files from a server to a PC across a network (Internet).
(DVI) Digital Video Interactive: A format for recording digital video onto compact disc allowing for compression and full motion video.
(DVTC) Desktop Videoconferencing: Videoconferencing on a personal computer.
Echo Cancellation: The process of eliminating the acoustic echo in a videoconferencing room.
E-mail Address: The Unique address within the Internet which allows people to send mail to you. Your e-mail address is made up of your name, the symbol and your domain name, so the address is firstname.lastname@example.org is the address for the user tripathi working at amadeus machine at the Statistics Faculty of University of Dortmund in Germany. To locate net users, please visit at ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/finding-addresses
Emoticons Smileys and other character art used to express feelings in email communication.
Facsimile (FAX):System used to transmit textual or graphical images over standard telephone lines.
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions. FAQS are files stored on the Net which store the answers to Frequently Asked Questions, if you are stuck check the FAQS first before you ask you own question.
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface: a standard that defines high-speed fiber networks.
Fiber Optic Cable: The transport fibres of glass or plastic that are enclosed by material of a lower index of refraction and that transmit light throughout their length by internal reflections. These fibres are bundled into cables and are capable of transmitting very large amounts of digital information (data) in both directions with very little loss in signal quality.
Filter: Hardware or software designed to restrict access to certain areas on the Internet.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP): An application program that uses TCP/IP protocol to allow you to move files from a distant computer to a local computer using a network like the Internet.
Filter Hardware or software designed to restrict access to certain areas on the Internet.
Finger Software that allows the user to enter the address of an Internet site to find information about that systemOs users or a particular user. Some finger addresses return other topic-specific information.
Flame: It is an inflammatory e-mail usually directed against the poster of a message.
Free-Net: Any one of more than two dozen freely accessible Internet sites, primarily offering community and educational information.
Frequency: The number of complete oscillations per second of an electromagnetic wave..
Free-Net Any one of more than two dozen freely accessible Internet sites, primarily offering community and educational information.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) FAQ files answer frequently asked questions on hundreds of Internet-related topics. They are freely available at many locations on the Net. This ftp site holds every FAQ on the Net.
Ftp to: rtfm.mit.edu
Go to the pub/usenet/news.answers subdirectory
Full Duplex: Process that allows both parties to Receive (listen) and transmit (talk) at the same time.
Full Motion Video: Signal which allows transmission of complete action taking place at the origination site.
Fully Interactive Video: (Two way interactive video) Two sites interact with audio and video as if they were collocated.
Gateway: A network element(node) that performs conversions between different coding and transmission formats.
Gopher: A menu-based system for browsing Internet information.
Graphical interface Software: designed to allow the user to execute commands by pointing and clicking on icons or text.
GUI- Graphical User Interface: A picture like control panel or screen(as opposed to a text-based screen), that makes a computer or presentation system easy to use. Amiga, Macintosh, and Windows environments are example of GUIs.
Hacker: A computer user who illegally visits networked computers to look around or cause harm. Home page The first page a user sees when visiting a World Wide Web site.
Half Duplex: Communication process that allows only one parties to transmit (talk) at a time.
Home Page or Homepage: the top level hypertext document in a collection of pages or web site. Often uses index.htm as file name.
Host: A network computer that can receive information from other computers.
(HTML) HyperText Markup Language: The programming language used to create web pages.
(HTTP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol: The protocol used to provide hyper text links between pages. It is the standard way of transfering HTML documents between Web servers and browsers.
Hypertext: A document which has been marked up to allow a user to select words or pictures within the document, click on them, and connect to further information.
Infobot (or mailbot): An email address that automatically returns information requested by the user.
Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS): Microwave-based, high-frequency television used in educational program delivery.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): A digital telecommunications standard allowing communication channels to carry voice, video, and data simultaneously, see module three.
Interactive Media: Frequency assignment that allows for a two-way interaction or exchange of information.
Internet: A worldwide network of networks. It si also the network of networks that connects more than three million computers (called hosts). The Internet is the virtual space in which users send and receive email, login to remote computers (telnet), browse databases of information (gopher, World Wide Web, WAIS), and send and receive programs (ftp) contained on these computers.
Internet account: Purchased through an Internet service provider, the account assigns a password and email address to an individual or group.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC): Interactive, real-time discussions between Internauts using text messages. Users log into designated Net computers and join discussions already in progress. More information about IRC can be obtained via ftp.
Ftp to: cs-ftp.bu.edu
Internet server: A computer that stores data that can be accessed via the Internet.
Internet Service Provider (ISP): Any organization that provides access to the Internet. Many ISPs also offer technical assistance to schools looking to become Internet information providers by placing their schools information online. They also help schools get connected to the Net.
Internet site: A computer connected to the Internet containing information that can be accessed using an Internet navigation tool such as ftp, telnet, gopher, or a Web browser.
(IP) Internet Protocol: The underlying packet standard used to connect networks over the Internet. IP is half of a protocol suite that works and must work with TCP.
Internaut Anyone who uses (navigates) the Internet.
ISDN- Integrated Services Digital Network: A type of digital phone service that provides versatility in terms of switching and data management.
ISO: International Standardization Organization, An international standards body.
ITFS- Instructional Television Fixed Service: A band of low-power microwave frequencies set aside by the Federal Communications Commisson(FCC) exclusively for the transmission of educational programming and licensed to public institutions.
JAVA: A Computer language developed by SUN which allows you to write software which works on a wide range of computers . JAVA is currently the programming language of choice on the Internet and it allows tiny programs to be created and sent over the network, More information is available at http://java.sun.com
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group, a joint effort of ISO and TSS. JPEG has established an international standard for still image compression.
Kbps: One Thousand bps, actual number is 1024 bps. Jughead An Internet search tool that will scan one or a few gopher sites for material related to a keyword.
Keyword A word or words which can be searched for in documents or menus.
Knowbot Software that searches Internet white pages, lists of users at large institutions, to find a personOs name and address.
LAN- Local Area Network: A private transmission that interconnects computers within a building or among buildings for the purpose of sharing voice, data, facsimile, and/or video.
LaserDisc: A record-like storage medium that uses analog and laser optical technology to store up to 54,000 full colour still pictures and 30-60 minutes of full motion video on a disc. LaserDisc players can be controlled by computer and can provide random access to any segment on the disc within 1-3 seconds.
LCD Panel: A device using a semi-transparent liquid crystal display(LCD) that allows the display of computer information on an overhead projector. The panels cut the light substantially, requiring very bright projectors.
Listserv: An e-mail program that allows multiple computer users to connect onto a single system, creating an on-line discussion.
Local Area Network (LAN): Two or more local computers that are physically connected.
Logon To sign on to a computer system.
Mailing lists (or Listserv) There are more than 4,000 topic-oriented, email-based message bases that can be read and posted to. Users subscribe to the lists they want to read and receive messages via email. Mailing lists are operated using listserv software. Thus, many Internauts call mailing lists listserver. There are two types of lists: moderated and unmoderated. Moderated lists are screened by a human before messages are posted to subscribers. Messages to unmoderated lists are automatically forwarded to subscribers.
Menu A list of information that leads to documents or other menus.
(MBONE) Multicast Backbone: a network that works in conjunction with the Internet for audio and video applications
Microcomputer: A computer with a microprocessor chip-based processing unit. Microcomputers are the original personal computers that many people use at home and at work.
Microwave: Electromagnetic waves that travel in a straight line and are used to and from satellites and for short distances (i.e., up to 30 miles).
MODEM: Acronym for MOulate DEModulate. Hardware that allows computers to interact with each other via telephone lines by converting digital signals to analog for transmission along analog lines. MOdulator/DEModulator, a gizmo which translates the digital information your computer produces into analogue signals that can be sent down the phone lines.
MOO: Acronym for a lot of things, on of which is Multi-user-dimension Object Oriented. They are multimedia, interactive environments in virtual space. Formerly in the confines of Telnet, MOOs now have taken advantage of the WWW.
Mosaic A dated example of browser. Internet navigation software that allows Internauts to access information through a graphical, point-and-click interface rather than text-only screens or menus. Mosaic is known as a Web browser because it accesses World Wide Web information formatted into special home pages using hypertext. Other graphical Web browsers include Netscape, WinWeb, InternetWorks, and Cello.
MPEG -Moving Pictures Experts Group: The group that has defined the multimedia compression standard for consumer and professional digital audio and video.
Mbps: One million bps, actual number is 1,048,576
Multimedia: Any document which uses multiple forms of communication, such as text, audio, and/or video.
Multi-Point Control Unit (MCU): Computerized switching system which allows point-to-multipoint videoconferencing.
National Information Infrastructure (NII): The official U.S. government name for the Internet and other computer networks. Commonly known as the Information Superhighway, please see at http://www.benton.org
Net surfer: Someone who browses the Internet with no definite destination.
Network: A group of computers that are connected in some fashion. Most school networks are known as LANs, or Local Area Networks, because they are networks linking computers in one small area. The Internet could be referred to as a WAN, or a Wide Area Network, because it connects computers in more than one local area. It is also a series of points connected by physical or virtual connects.
Netiquette: The Etiquette of using the Internet, to avoid breaching Netiquette make sure that you investigate any FAQs or new user sections of newsgroups and do not send irrelevent e-mail.
Newsgroups: These are the bulletin boards of the Internet. There are around 20,000 groups covering every subject under the sun. Most IAPs have a newsgroup server which periodically takes all new messages from a newsgroup feed and adds the messages which have been posted by its own users. To access the newsgroups stored on your IAPs newsgroup server you need a newsreader program.
Online/Offline: When you are logged onto a computer through your modem, you are said to be online. When you are using your computer but are not connected to a computer through your modem, youOre said to be working offline. On-line is also a Buzz word that indicates access to a computer network.
Posts Email messages sent to a mailing list or Usenet newsgroup to be read by subscribers or others on the Internet.
PC(Personal Computer): A generic term used to describe many kinds of small format personal computer systems found at schools, homes, and offices. Sometimes identified by the speed of the central processing board (486,6840,etc.).
(POP) Point of Presence: actual site of an ISP or other service
(PPP) Point-to-Point Protocol: a type of Internet protocol that uses the serial (COM) port connection.
Protocol: A formal set of standards, rules, or formats for exchanging data that assures uniformity between computers and applications.
QuickTime: A software solution developed by Apple to allow the simulation of moving video throughout a variety of programs. Files are known as "Quick-Time Movies".
RAM: Random Access Memory, It is temporary memory storage area in a computer that can be changed.
RealTime: An application in which information is received and responded to immediately.
Request For Comments (RFC): Online documents that have to do with technical standards for the Internet. Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or Point to Point Protocol (PPP, a Dial-up IP) Internet connections Both allow a computer to connect to the Internet using a modem and telephone line. Users then navigate the Internet using software on their own computer. This is in contrast to using a Dialup Internet Connection, where a user is forced to navigate the Net using a text-based set of menus.
Satellite TV: Video and audio signals are relayed via a communication device that orbits around the earth.
Scanner: A device that uses a moving optical reader to store a page or photo for translation into digital (bitmap) information.
(SLIP) Serial Line Internet Protocol: Predecessor of PPP. Allows a user to connect to the Internet directly over a high-speed modem.
Server: A computer with a special service function on a network, generally receiving and connecting incoming information traffic.
Signature file: Return address information such as name, phone number, and email address that users put at the bottom of email messages.
Spam: Slang for posting the same message to multiple newsgroups--frowned at on the Internet.
Synchronous Distance Education: Distance Education that takes place real time but in different locations, the virtual classroom.
T-1 (DS-1): High speed line capable of carrying 1.54 Mbps. T-1 has 24 voice circuits and can be divided into 12 ISDN lines
T-2 (DS-2): High speed line capable of carrying 6.312 Mbps. 96 voice circuits
T-3 (DS-3): High speed line capable of carrying 44.736 Mbps. 672 voice circuits
T-4 (DS-4): High speed line capable of carrying 274.176 Mbps. 4032 voice circuits
TCP: Transmission Control Protocol ---the BIG DADDIE of the Internet Protocols. TCP takes the Information to be transmitted by the application and passes it to the IP(Internet Protocol) to be transmitted. IP is responsible for getting a packet of information from one host to another, while TCP is responsible for making sure messages get from one host to another and that the messages are understood.
Telecommunication: The science of information transport using wire, radio, optical, or electromagnetic channels to transmit receive signals for voice or data communications using electrical means.
Teleconferencing: Interactive communication among people at two or more locations using telecommunications.
Telnet: It allows users to access computers and their data at thousands of places around the world, most often at libraries, universities, and government agencies.
TSS: Telecommunications Standardization Sector. The TSS develops technically-oriented international communications standards. All member countries of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), one of the specialized agencies of the United nations, can participate in the work of TSS.
Unix: A computer operating system commonly used on the Internet.
Uplink: The communication link from the transmitting earth station to the satellite.
Usenet Newsgroups: More than 10,000 topic-oriented message bases that can be read and posted to. Also called newsgroups, please visit at http://www.dejanews.com
URL: A Uniform Resource Locator is basically the address of any resource on the Internet. You type the URL in your browser and you are whizzed off to the appropriate site. e.g. http://ole.net/ole
http://ole.net/ole: A computer program that helps Internauts find what they're looking for on gopher servers around the world. Instead of looking through menus, Veronica allows users to enter keywords to locate the gopher site that holds the information they want.
Gopher to: veronica.scs.unr.edu
Veronica A computer program that helps Internauts find what theyOre looking for on gopher servers around the world. Instead of looking through menus, Veronica allows users to enter keywords to locate the gopher site that holds the information they want.
Gopher to: veronica.scs.unr.edu
Virtual A computer-generated environment.
WAIS Wide Area Information Servers: These servers allow users to conduct full-text keyword searches in documents, databases, and libraries connected tothe Internet.
WWW: World Wide Web--also known as WEB--this is the generic name given to all of the hypertext-based HTML documents on the Internet. A revolutionary Internet browsing system that allows point-and-clicknavigation of the
Internet. The WWW is a spiderweb-like interconnection of millions of pieces of information located on computers around the world. Web documents use hypertext, which incorporates text and graphical links to other documents and files on Internet-connected computers.
Source:-> URL: http://www.wentworth.com
a. The spectral virtual uniersity learning network, http://www.vu.org
b. University College and Extension Services, The Choice for Continuing Education and Professional Development, California State University, Long Beach.
With Kind Regards
Arun Kumar Tripathi