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Learn to use Boolean Google Search Operators

The site:, intitle:, filetype:, AND and OR operators



In 2014, the Feds even issued a warning to US businesses to be on the lookout for Google-dorking activity as a sign of hackers. Google offers a feature called "site" that lets you search a single website for a keyword or photos — here's a tutorial on how to use that. Google also has special search commands called "filetype" and "datarange." Google hacking also has special search commands called "filetype" and "datarange." There are entire projects dedicated to that effort, too, like The Diggity Project and the Google Hacking Database. These projects keep lists of premade dorking queries that companies can run on their own websites to see what turns up.

Google Search: Inurl:server Filetype:key “-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----” : here and Hacker News replies

Remove information from Google


2014 We Reserve The Right To Use EXIF Data For Image Search Rankings

Controversy > Discovery Engine
Probe for the Darker Side of your search topics. Get more diverse and analytic content from Google.

2013 The National Security Agency produced a book to help its spies uncover intelligence hiding on the web. The 643-page tome, called Untangling the Web: A Guide to Internet Research (.pdf), was released by the NSA following a FOIA request filed in April by MuckRock, a site that charges fees to process public records for activists and others. The book was published by the Center for Digital Content of the National Security Agency, and is filled with advice for using search engines, the Internet Archive and other online tools. But the most interesting is the chapter titled "Google Hacking" How to send Get requests and go

Improve the relevance of your Google search results:





Basic Search Techniques The Google Hacker’s Guide Understanding and Defending Against the Google Hacker.


1. use quotation marks for phrase searching,
2. using the +sign as an AND operator may no longer function as the plus
sign is now being utilized in relation to GooglePlus, their social networking site
3. use the -sign (NOT operator) in front of the words you want to exclude from your search results
3. use the tilde ~ in front of your search terms to include words related to your search terms (synonyms) -
NOTE: this works for some words but not all words in the English vocabulary, according to user feedback
4. use the Advanced Search Interface,
to restrict your search results to an exact phrase, a specific date range, or specific domain, or specific file type, e.g. PDF
5. Adjust your Settings before you search,
where you can turn off Google Instant, and then use, the I Feel Lucky button next to the search box to bypass the usual pages of search results and opt for the most relevant search result only

GoogleGuide Search Operators

Google Kills Uncle Sam Search Portal
But thanks to ResearchBuzz you can now use a list of the fifty states, with these three domain types for each state, and dumped it into a custom Google search engine that’s available at fifty states
Put in any keywords you want and your search results will be restricted to official state Web sites only. OR create your own custom Search Engine.

There are a bunch of undocumented advanced operators that you can use.
Note: Google may deprecate or change any operator at any time.
Use "quoted phrases" combined with other terms that are relevant; minus sign as NOT operator; and site: for constraining searches to a particular domain (especially useful if you live outside the 'default' of USA and want to search for local companies / products / research).

Find Public Google Docs

Google search finds public files. Search engines only index the files that are "public on the Web".
Google Docs robots.txt file allows search engines to index most of the public files, and you should be able to find them, assuming that there are some links that point to them. By default, files are private, but you can change the visibility from the "Share" box.
Here are some useful queries that let you find public Google Drive/Docs files (you can append some keywords to the queries): find


The site operator only shows results from specific Web sites or domains you specify.

Your search terms should be placed directly after the operator with no spaces.

Google operators are case-sensitive but your search terms are not!

Order in which you specify your search terms doesn't matter.




Quotes return results for your *exact* search term.

This applies to using 2 or more separate words/letters/numbers.
Searching for Windows 7 is different than searching for "Windows 7" in that the first example will return results that could include the number 7 and the word "Windows" *anywhere* within a page and not necessarily grouped together. The second example, however, will return results that contain Windows 7 as an *exact* phrase.

AND and OR operators



AND: This operator tells Google "I only want to see results that contain all of what I'm searching for." You will see only results including cats and dogs, your search query would be cats AND dogs.

OR: will tell google that you only want to see results based on what you specify, but not results that have to contain all of what you specify. ---> OR is interchangeable with |
example, "Search Engines" | C++ is the same as "Search Engines" OR C++.
Spaces don't matter with the OR operator. You can have multiple OR operators in one search query. "Windows 7" | "Win 7" | "Windows Seven" | "Win Seven"

filetype: operator


There is no space after the colon when using this operator. You can use ext: instead of filetype: — they work exactly the same

Example: filetype:sql hotmail gmail password
Use Google to search for SQL database files that were web accessible and contained keywords like "password" and "gmail". allows any Internet user to search a database of known compromised e-mail address and password pairs to see if their password has been compromised.
Database includes leaked or stolen account information from 17 recent high-profile breaches. All the LulzSec releases are included as well as data from other high profile incidents.



intitle: operator shows your search terms in the title of a page or document.

If you want to find Microsoft Word documents in which the document title includes the phrase “marketing plan,” you would use the query intitle:"microsoft word" filetype:doc. Follow the intitle: operator with a word or a phrase in quotes, without a space after the colon. intitle:index.of mymusic

site:edu intitle:Introduction intitle:C++ filetype:ppt | filetype:pdf | filetype:doc





Use authentication to be safe and password-protect your files and change or encrypt file names so that they cannot show up in searches related to their file names or provide intrigue for potential intruders.

If you find your information has been indexed in a search engine, remove your file(s) immediately from your Web site, then contact the search engine to have both the indexed and cached results removed. Don't just remove the file(s) from your site, because someone could still view a search engine-cached version of the file(s).

Google operators are case-sensitive.
Only use lowercase letters .


Operator Description Format Example Description
filetype: k12 education
filetype:doc, filetype:xls, filetype:pdf, or filetype:ppt,
Restrict search results by file type extension
site: google Search within a site or domain
inurl: inurl:k12 education Search for a word or phrase within the URL
allinurl: allinurl:k12 education Search for multiple words within the URL
intext: intext:k12 education Search for a word in the main body text
allintext: allintext:k12 education Search for multiple words within the body text of indexed pages
intitle: intitle:“k12 education” Search for a word or phrase within the page title
allintitle: allintitle:k12 education Search for multiple words within the page title
inanchor: inanchor:“k12 education” Search for a word or phrase within anchor text
allinanchor: allinanchor: k12 education Search for multiple words within anchor text
daterange: search marketing daterange:2454833-2454863 Restrict search results to pages indexed during the specified range (requires Julian dates)
related: Display pages of similar content
info: Display info about a page
link: Display pages that link to the specified page
cache: Display Google's cached version of a page
define: define:search marketing Define a word or phrase
stocks: stocks:goog Display stock quote and financial info for a specified ticker symbol
phonebook: phonebook: john smith, madison, wi bill withers 608-555-1212 Display a residential phone directory listing
{area code} 212 Display location and map of an area code
{street address} 123 main, chicago, il chicago, il chicago Display a street map for a specified location
{mathematical expression} 35 * 40 * 52 520 miles in kilometers Do a calculation or measurement conversion


Query Operator explanations





Searches for multiple words within the body text of indexed pages. This is used in a similar fashion to allinurl:


This works like intitle: but searches for multiple words in the title. For instance, use allintitle: channel conflict online retail to search for documents that contain all four of those words in the title. Note that there is a space after the colon when using this operator.


The inanchor: operator will restrict your search to pages where the underlined text of inbound links matches your search word. For example, if you wanted to search for HTML site maps but confine your search to those pages with links that say “site map”, inanchor:”site map” would do the trick, since most sites link to their own site maps using the link text of “Site Map.”

Follow the inanchor: operator with a word or a phrase in quotes, without a space after the colon.


This works like inanchor: but searches for multiple words in the anchor text. For example, the query seo tool allinanchor: download trial would invoke a search for pages relating to SEO tools that have the words download and trial in the anchor text.

Note that there is a space after the colon when using this operator.


Use the inurl: operator to restrict the search results to pages that contain a particular word in the URL.

This can be especially useful if you want Google to display all the pages it has found with a particular script name, such as inurl:ToolPage Again, there is no space after the colon when using this operator.


This operator is similar in function to the inurl: operator but is used for finding multiple words in the URL. It eliminates the need to keep repeating inurl: in front of every word you want to search for in the URL.

For instance, allinurl: china exporting is an equivalent and more concise form of the query inurl:china inurl:exporting to find Web pages that contain the words china and exporting anywhere in the URL, including the filename, directory names, extension, or domain. There IS a space after the colon when using the allinurl: operator.


Searches for a word in the main body text. This is used in a similar fashion to inurl:.


The cache: operator provides a snapshot view of a Web page as it looked when Googlebot last visited the page. Follow this operator with a Web address, such as to view the page that Google has cached. Note that Googlebot must have downloaded the page in order for this to work.


You can search within a site or a domain by adding the site: operator followed by a site's domain name to your query. For example, you could search for me but restrict your search to only pages within the site with a query of your name site:www.yoursitecom.

You can also add a subdirectory to the end of the domain in a site: query. For example seo site:www.yourname/what-we-do/.

To conduct a comprehensive search of all of the associated subdomains of a domain, omit the www and instead specify only the main domain. For example, a search for would encompass not just, but also,, and so forth. The site: search operator works even when just the domain extension (like .com, .org, .gov, or is specified. Thus, you can restrict your search to .com sites with site:com, to .gov sites with site:gov, or to with

Combining Boolean logic with the site: operator will allow you to search within multiple sites simultaneously. For instance, search marketing ( | | searches the three sites simultaneously.

Use the site: operator by itself without other search words to get a list of all pages indexed, such as Again, note that there is no space after the colon when using this operator.


The daterange: operator restricts the search results to pages added or updated within the specified date range. It only accepts Julian dates, which makes it less user-friendly than it could be. You can find Gregorian-to-Julian date converters online, e.g. here.

You'll almost certainly find it easier just to do your search first without a date range, then use the custom date range options in the “More search tools” area of the resulting SERP.


“Related” queries show pages that are similar to the specified Web page. Follow this operator with a Web address, such as, and you would find Web pages that are related to the home page.


An info: query lets you know whether the specified page is known by Google, and it provides the title and a snippet (if available), a link to the page, a link to a cached version of the page (see below for an explanation of this), and a link to view pages that link to the specified page.

Supply a Web address after this operator, such as


The link: operator displays a sampling of pages that link to the specified Web page. Follow this operator with a Web address, such as to find pages that link to the Covario home page. Google does not support appending further refinements onto this operator such as excluding links within the same site.


This is a useful operator for quickly obtaining several definitions from various online glossaries. Curious about the definition of “tipping point”? Simply type in define: tipping point into Google.




Google offers an online residential phone directory look-up. Simply follow this operator with a name and location (full street address, or just city and state, or ZIP code), or a phone number for a reverse number look-up.

{area code}

Google also offers an area code look-up. For example, enter 313 and Google returns the geographic location and map corresponding to that area code.

{street address}

Queries in the format of a street address automatically return street maps. Enter a full street address, or a ZIP code, or a city and state. For example, 123 east main street, madison, wi or 53703 or madison, wi are all valid map-based Google searches.

Google search tricks

Google Search "PlayGround"

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