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Educational CyberPlayGround's PLAGIARISM DETECTION: Catching Digital Cheaters

Plagiarism Detection in Term Papers, and Essays and Research

Educational CyberPlayGround, Inc.A compendium of links to valuable information about plagiarism and the internet. Teacher resources for detecting plagiarism and cheating. Student resources to help avoid plagiarism on the Educational CyberPlayGround®.

"An idea can transform the world & rewrite all the rules. Which is why I have to steal it" ~ anon

Use the Creative Commons licences to share your stories.

"Everyone is a Copyright Holder" - 5 minute overview by Barry Britt

Also see Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/

TEACHERS MUST ABIDE BY ALL THE SAME ETHICS, LAWS, AND RULES THAT CHILDREN DO!!

RESOURCES FOR
HIGHER ED STUDENTS
AND PROFESSORS

 

2014 Publishers withdraw more than 120 gibberish papers. A French researcher discovered that the works were computer-generated nonsense, forcing publishers to take them down. What a racket!

 

 

 

CITATION RULES - Electronic Sources for the APA MLA Styles apply to you.

Electronic Reserve - CORNELL CREATES ELECTRONIC RESERVES GUIDELINES
2006 Following a complaint from the Association of American Publishers, Cornell University, working with the association, has developed a set of guidelines to help faculty avoid copyright violations when placing materials on electronic reserve. The association sent a letter to Cornell expressing concern over what it saw as the common practice of failing to apply fair-use principles to electronic content. Allan Adler, vice president for legal and governmental affairs at the association, said the new guidelines embody the notion that copyright protections apply equally to hard-copy and online material.

Liz Johnson, Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia, provided a chart comparing seven plagiarism detection tools: Turnitin, MyDropBox, PAIRwise, EVE2, WCopyFind, CopyCatch, & GLATT.

INTRODUCE
FAIR USE

 

 

Information on Music law, contracts and deals.
The absolutely original artist is an extremely rare and possibly imaginary creature, living in some isolated habitat where no previous works or traditions have left any impression. Plagiarism in Dylan, or a Cultural Collage?

 

K-21 Student Cheaters

Must Know Your
FAIR Use Rights

Cutting and pasting a few sentences at a time from the Internet is NOT cheating, This is FAIR USE. You simply need to cite the source.
NYT, To Stop Cheats, Colleges Learn Their Trickery By TRIP GABRIEL 7/6/2010 nytimes.com/2010/07/06/education/06cheat.html

Internet: Copyright and Fair Use

Why file sharing is not theft

 

The real purpose of education

It shouId be clear that the real purpose of education should be to help students learn how to think, rather than trying to teach them merely to pass exams through rote learning.  But that concept would seem to require a considerable restructuring of educational processes that is decidedly unconventional by today's norms.

TOOLS

 

 

Students Need to Protect their Copyright
Graduate students must learn how to protect their intellectual property and to get credit for what they've done:
Examples include a student not receiving authorship on written work, or having a professor take credit for their work. "This isn't an indictment of profs at all," said Howlett. "It's just to ensure that students' rights are protected in the case that it does happen."

Graduate Student: Intellectual Property Guidelines (PDF)

Monitor articles against theft.

Get alerted if one of your articles turns up on some Web site that you haven't authorized to run it.

  1. you can occasionally use the search engines to look for a phrase from one of your articles.
  2. You can use a service like Tracerlock to alert you when your name turns up on a new Web site (for when someone who doesn't know better copies your article verbatim onto his/her site).
  3. Spyonit.com allows you to set up a spy that alerts you whenever a specified word or phrase shows up on AltaVista or Northern Light. It's under the "Swiss Army Spies" and it's called PermaSearch. (Spyonit is free but requires a non-intrusive registration.)

Directory of Service Provider Agents for Notification of Claims of Infringement
This outlines an Internet Service Provider's (ISP) obligations if one of its subscribers offers infringing copy online. The statute describes "notice and takedown" provisions, which state that once an ISP receives notice of the infringement, it must take down the unauthorized material.

Harvard dean who authorized secret search of faculty email Fired
The Harvard University dean who approved a secret search of faculty email to track down a media leak about student cheating will step down on July 1, the dean announced on Tuesday.
According to the Harvard Gazette, Dean Evelynn M. Hammonds will return to teaching and research in the departments of the History of Science and African and African American Studies at the university, located in the US city of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

The Boston Globe broke the story about her authorization of a secret search of 16 deans' email accounts.
Harvard admitted to the Globe that it secretly gained access to the email accounts of the resident deans but that it was necessary to safeguard the privacy of students involved in a 2012 cheating scandal. That scandal involved some 125 students enrolled in a spring 2012 class about government. In a statement issued on Monday, Hammonds and Dean Michael D. Smith confirmed that a "very narrow, careful, and precise subject-line search" of official university email accounts had been approved and carried out by the university’s IT department in the fall of 2012. The deans emphasized that only the subject lines, not the content of the emails, were searched and read:

"To be clear: No one's emails were opened and the contents of no one’s emails were searched by human or machine. The subject-line search turned up two emails with the queried phrase, both from one sender. Even then, the emails were not opened, nor were they forwarded or otherwise shared with anyone in IT, the administration, or the board. Only a partial log of the 'metadata' - the name of the sender and the time the emails were sent - was returned."

Faculty members' reaction to the news that their employer had searched their email had been fast and furious. One, Harry Lewis, a former dean of Harvard College and a professor of computer science at the university, questioned why the higher-ups didn't simply ask who had sent information about the cheating to the Harvard Crimson newspaper, from whence it made its way to the Boston Globe.
In fact, the university didn't inform faculty of the email search until the Boston Globe asked about it, the Globe reported. Lewis, in his blog postings, poses questions that are relevant to many employees in many other organizations when it comes to what type of expectations we should have about the privacy of our work email accounts:

"This seems to me a sad incident which raises many questions. If an employee's boss wants to spy on her, who has to sign off on it and how does it get done? How many such searches have been done over the past five years? Is it always done without informing the target?"

Whether or not you know the answers to these thoughtful questions as they pertain to your own employer, it's likely safe to assume that your business email account is considered fair game for surveillance.
Can we blame institutions for this? As Harvard emphasized, it has a responsibility to protect students' privacy. Other businesses are obligated to protect intellectual privacy and to ensure that employees aren't using their business accounts to break the law. Whether you agree with the fairness or not, bear in mind that Big Brother could be watching.

2013 Harvard Digs a Deeper Hole on Cheating, E-Mail
http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-04-03/harvard-digs-a-deeper-hole-on-cheating-e-mail#r=read "Now Harvard admits that the e-mail surveillance was wider than the school originally admitted. Evelynn Hammonds, dean of Harvard College, said officials performed two reviews of a resident dean's e-mail that the school hadn't acknowledged last month, according to a transcript of remarks she made April 2 to a Faculty of Arts & Sciences meeting. The confusion over how much, and what kind of, digital monitoring Harvard does led University President Faust to form the Barron task force."

READ: Harvard Plagiarism Probe Under Way for About 125 Students 2012

Point: Anytime anyone uses language from another source (another student, Wikipedia, a book, a song....) in their own writing (exam or paper) without quotation and attribution is guilty of plagiarism and is unacceptable under any circumstances. Period. End of story.  There is no ambiguity here at all.
Students or professors who are guilty of plagiarism do not belong in an institution committed to scholarship. In my  view, plagiarism should be punished by permanent expulsion/firing. They need to find another job, where integrity isn't an occupational qualification.
~ Professor Emeritus Gerald Faulhaber: Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania

Counter Point: An open-book take-home exam needs to have very carefully constructed rules as to what is or is not permissible, and the penalties for violating those rules need to be stated clearly up front.  This case may rest on whether that was done properly.  Also, there's generally no one-size-fits-all set of requirements for all course exams for all sorts of different courses in different departments, so this situation deserves much more anticipatory care.
In this case, I suppose there's a chance that the dean involved does not understand the nature of browsing?  or that the rules were not explicitly stated? Use of e-mail with other students should probably be verboten. Browsing a reliable source might be fair game in some cases, but is wikipedia really reliable enough?
Perhaps the students all copied a particular webpage, which might look like collusion to the administration, but which could seem like an obvious thing to do by the students -- especially if the website that was explicitly under some sort of open-source/CREATIVE COMMONS openness, begging to be copied -- in which case no student would need to copy anything from or share anything with another student.  And what consitutes fair use in the case, especially if a student lists of all of the URLs from which the information was gathered?
I've just given a top-of-the-head risk-oriented reaction.  But we need a lot more information about what actually happened.
~ Peter G. Neumann csl.sri.com

POINT: This issue of Harvard Magazine has an article on Harry Lewis, who has radically reorganized a course on discrete math underlying computer science, emphasizing collaboration in groups working together around tables in an unusual non-auditorium-style classroom setting, with much less LECTURING than commonplace.
This is a marvelous article, and very timely in light of the ongoing probe of the case of suspected massive plagiarism at Harvard.  It should be mandatory reading for professors and students alike.

Counter Point: The Harvard Cheating Scandal Is Stupid
Worth reading for his own unique perspective, but this is the money quote: "So let me make my own counter-allegation: the students aren't guilty of cheating, the university is guilty of entrapment.  Here's what you're not allowed to do: ask a basic question, "Do interest groups make Congress more or less representative as an institution?" and then threaten that "the response will be judged on how well it draws from the course materials to make an argument."  NO.  You could evaluate the answer on its merits or the rigor of the thinking, but whether and how it draws on the course materials is exactly what you do not want-- it facilitates the grading of the essays, sure, keeps everything inside the gates, but it derails learning.  When you write that, you force 125 people to collaborate on the real final exam question: "What does the professor want?"  Apparently, what he wants is an easy way to grade, and you all got caught giving it to him.  ~ thelastpsychiatrist.com/

Pount: Reminds me of a test a "friend" took at a University in the lake area of NY. He gave a perfectly correct answer to an exam in Electrical Engineering but was heavily marked down because it was NOT the method taught in class. No matter whether it was right or wrong, it was not as lectured. I have never to my memory EVER marked that way. In fact I would give a plus grade for such thinking. ~ Dave Farber

Counter Point: I think that this is more complex than both Stephen Wilks and Dave Farber note.  I teach a course on globalization and international politics to juniors and seniors at Penn. They are bright and often familiar with many of the issues we cover in class at a superficial level. There are instances where many of them could write a reasonably coherent essay in answer to test questions without ever having cracked a book or attended a class.  I am trying to help them learn to approach these problems conceptually, analytically and systematically, using theories and sophisticated conceptual arguments.  While it is possible that they could be aware of theoretical or conceptual approaches that we do not cover, that does not happen all that often. Their is a big difference between grading on how many points from the readings and lectures they can work into a 1300 word answer and how well they use the ideas, concepts and theories that we have developed in class to analyze a problem they — hopefully — have not see before.  
This is not a matter of which method they use to solve an EE problem. In the courses I teach most students can write something about any question. I hope that what we cover in class improves the quality of their thinking and analysis. I am looking for arguments grounded in theory and concepts.  Again, if they bring in frameworks that I have not covered, more power to them.  But as noted above, it is a rare occurrence.
I have not gotten into this argument previously, but I will say that given the ubiquity of information in the internet age, making sure that students understand that they must cite any ideas that are not their own, regardless of the source, is a daily battle.  It is, however, one that is about the very basis of academic and intellectual integrity and is it is certainly worth fighting. ~Steve Kobrin

POINT: As you know, I am not an academic, although I’ve taught a course at Harvard Law School and given numerous classes and lectures at colleges around the country. My familiarity with Harvard, where I’ve been representing students in “cheating” cases for some four decades, causes me to be very suspect of this latest “scandal.” I find that Harvard, more than any of the many dozens of colleges with which I’m familiar or at which I have represented accused students, engages in the use of vague rules and regulations, the enforcement of which by mid-level student life administrators put the students at the administrators’ unconstrained mercy. Harvard is also in a very small group of colleges where there is no student representation on the disciplinary Administrative Board of Harvard College; since faculty members pay as little attention as possible to the Ad Board, this leaves the students’ fate almost entirely in the hands of the student life bureaucrats. This explains not only the lack of fairness, but also the bizarre absence of rational fact-finding on the Ad Board. Let’s just say that I’m sufficiently familiar with Harvard so that when it came time for my son to apply to college, I left all decisions and choices up to him but warned him strongly away from Harvard. He took my advice, happily, and went to Columbia. There is something very wrong with the culture of Harvard, and this latest “scandal” is, I suspect, just another result of the failure of the faculty and governing boards, and the ascendance of the mindless mid-level student life bureaucracy. ~ Harvey Silverglate Tel. (617) 661-9156
( I practice law -- criminal defense, civil liberties, and academic freedom/student rights cases. I’m the co-author of the 1998 book The Shadow University: The Betrayal of Liberty on America’s Campuses (in paperback, 1999, from HarperPerennial), where I explain this phenomenon that actually began to take root in the mid-1980s.)
FIRE academic freedom/student rights cases. In addition to his legal work, Silverglate has led parallel careers as newspaper columnist, book author, and Chairman of the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE).



2012 TPP Text On Fair Use Leaks; US Proposals Are Really About Limiting Fair Use, Not Expanding It.
Which is why there's so much secrecy over its negotiations. http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20120804/00173819933/tpp-text-fair-use-leaks-us-proposals-are-really-about-limiting-fair-use-not-expanding-it.shtml
Public statement from the USTR that it was adding language to the TPP agreement that embraced "limitations and exceptions" to copyright law -- even as we believe that it's wrong to call fair use rights "limitations and exceptions" when they're really just enforcing the public's own rights to information. We also found it bizarre and ridiculous that no text was being shared -- and noted that the USTR would garner a lot more trust if it was actually transparent and opened up the language in question for public discussion. Others expressed some specific worries about even the nature of the statement.
That said, it was a big deal that the USTR would even acknowledge such things as fair use in a document like this, because historically it had never done so. It appeared to be a "step" in the right direction, but a relatively small one.
The text of the current negotiations on that particular section leaked to KEI there are reasons to be greatly concerned. As many public interest groups had wondered, it appears that the text focuses on expanding the "three step" test for these expansions of user rights. The three step test for user rights, as is written into the Berne Convention agreement is much more limited than most of what we conceive of as fair use (it's also a relativel recent addition to the Berne agreement, being added in 1971.

2012 Paper:Policing the Network: Using DPI for Copyright Enforcement
Abstract: Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) and other network surveillance techniques have become important factors in the policy debate over online copyright infringement. These new technical capabilities reopened an old debate about the responsibility of internet service providers (ISPs) for policing the internet. This paper attempts to understand the extent to which new technological capabilities have the power to alter regulatory principles. It examines political conflict and negotiation over proposals to use DPI for online copyright enforcement in the EU and the USA, using a hybrid of actor-network theory from science, technology and society studies and actor-centered institutionalism in political science. It shows that while the technology disrupted a policy equilibrium, neither the EU nor the US applied DPI to copyright policing in a way that realized its radical potential. The key factor preventing such an integrated response was the disjunction between the interests of network oper
ators and the interests of copyright holders. Full Text: PDF
library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/pol_net

 

Example: Post writer suspended for plagiarism
Washington Post / March 17, 2011
The Washington Post suspended one of its most seasoned reporters yesterday after editors determined that “substantial'' parts of two recent news articles were taken without attribution from another newspaper. Sari Horwitz, a longtime Post investigative reporter, was suspended for three months for plagiarizing sections of stories that first appeared in The Arizona Republic.


A Double Standard - Lawyers never cite the source they just use it.
Corynne McSherry of the Electronic Frontier Foundation handles copyright cases regularly. She notes that, while legal documents are copyrighted, "it is common for lawyers to 'borrow' language from other filings and rare for another lawyer to complain about it. For example, we saw language from our class action complaint in the Sony rootkit case replicated in other Complaints. Taking too much, however, is frowned upon."
http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2010/10/copied-pleadings-show-theres-no-honor-among-antipiracy-lawyers.ars

 

Kings Canyon Unified School District
Digital Citizenship Lessons Grades 1-12

 

 

CITATION RULES - Electronic Sources for the APA MLA Styles

An instructor can largely avoid the issue of plagiarism by giving assignments that require personal knowledge or that compel students to provide regular accounts of their studies.

Plagiarism
find articles, rules, resources, sites, ethics, policies for teachers, including Law, with recommendations on how to combat plagiarism.

Teach Students How to Cite The Source Helping them to write a research paper IS teaching them. Demonstrate how to do basic tasks, then have them do it them during class. Especially when this is something they have never done before, they need time to practice. A workshop is perfect for this - you can circulate and help those with problems. This is particularly true of something as complex as a bibliography; kids have a lot of problems with this simply because different sources are in different formats. Use web resources that help kids build their own citations - citationmachine-east.net, or noodle tools. Break down the work into workable bites. One key piece will be organizing the writing of the paper. Consider using a graphic organizer to help them put it all together.
See the classification of educational objectives, known as Bloom's Taxonomy, which incorporates cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains of knowledge. While working at the University of Chicago in the 1950s and '60s, he wrote two important books, Stability and Change in Human Characteristics and Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956). Bloom's taxonomy provides structure in which to categorize test questions. This taxonomy helps teachers pose questions in such a way to determine the level of understanding that a student possesses. For example, based upon the type of question asked, a teacher can determine that a student is competent in content knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and/or evaluation. This taxonomy is organized in a hierarchal way to organize information from basic factual recall to higher order thinking. Bloom's taxonomy [1] helps teachers better prepare questions that would foster basic knowledge recall all the way to questioning styles that foster synthesis and evaluation. By structuring the questioning format, teachers will be able to better understand what a child's weaknesses and strengths are and determine ways to help students think at a higher-level.

Teachers | Digital Cheating with cell phone cameras | Digitial Cheating IPod Crib Notes and IPod Dictionary

M.M.S. REGULATORS - CHEATERS WHO LEAD BY EXAMPLE
BP took the ultimate gamble. They avoided the legally-required checks on safety, and lied about environmental impacts. They cozied up with regulators and the M.M.S. It has been reported that In the moments leading up to the disaster, BP may have put profits before safety. Now 11 workers are dead, and wetlands critical to the stability and endurance of the gulf coastline may be damaged beyond all hope. BP gambled with OUR future, and what was lost can never be regained. BP should be obligated to take full responsibility for damages and losses caused by their flagrant disregard for the rule-of-law. This will send an important message to other high-stakes gamblers, that Uncle Sam expects you to play by the rules, and won't bail out any cheaters. Jon Stubbs Lafayette

Schools banning music players mp3 players loaded with study guides and dictionaries are smuggled into classrooms. iPod-ready crib notes published by SparkNotes and iPod dictionaries are published and sold by, iPREPpress, a business that retails reference material that can be viewed on the digital music players like the iPod Nano, which has a screen about the size of a postage stamp and becomes a digital cheat sheet in the hands of unscrupulous students.

Out and out cheating is a huge problem.
Math Assignments have been posted on Chinese websites where students pay money for solutions. There is a fine line between "collaboration" and cheating, and that line isn't always apparent to students.

CELL PHONES send text messages and photos of exams to other students. Ugh Oh, caught & put up on Utube. Not a good thing when your college finds out.

Schools all over the US are "cracking down on students whose cellphones disrupt classes and make it easier to cheat," For example, Milwaukee's 222 schools just started enforcing an if-you-use-it-we'll-take-it rule "prompted by fights that escalated into brawls when students used cellphones to summon family members and outsiders."
Cell phones with built-in digital cameras and e-mail allow sneaky students to send silent questions and answers to one another right under teachers' noses. Digital Cheaters can alert each other using a signal that is out of range of Adults. They are too old to hear the sound. Confiscate cell phones prior to tests and use C-Guard, which interrupts cell-phone signals within a 262-foot radius. Students have been caught using a computer's spell checker on a test that evaluated, in part, spelling; and listening to iPods with lecture notes recorded on them.

Academic Integrity

 

Turn It In now used by 9,500 high schools and colleges. LEARN ABOUT TURN IT IN AND GET LESSON PLANS Turnitin have tried many tricks, some described in blogs and videos. One is to replace every "e" in plagiarized text with a foreign letter that looks like it, such as a Cyrillic "e," meant to fool Turnitin's scanners. Another is to use the Macros tool in Microsoft Word to hide copied text. Turnitin says neither scheme works.

On most campuses, over 75% of students admit to some cheating. In a 1999 survey of 2,100 students on 21 campuses across the country, about one-third of the participating students admitted to serious test cheating and half admitted to one or more instances of serious cheating on written assignments. No need to visit the library for that copyrighted book now they use google's snippets to write their papers.

Masterpapers.com High School to Dissertation Research Service is a writing company which has been providing its customers with writing and research services for several years.

The US-based CrossRef, a non-profit membership association for publishers, has created a database of 20 million academic papers. Publishers of journals will be able to run an academic's submission through the database and discover whether there are matches with already published papers. The database, known as CrossCheck, covers a wide range of articles,

Fake Degrees - Digital Diploma Mills
Oh yes, don't foreget to Get fake degrees, fake diploma, fake GED, fake transcripts with actual designs from hundreds of real schools. You're the only one who will know that you have a fake one. Yeah sure!

HomeWork Answers

 

Course Hero, homework sharing, where students from more than 3,500 institutions upload papers, class notes and past exams.

Cramster, specializes in solutions to textbook questions in science and engineering. Answers from 77physics textbooks.

Insider look at how this is done

 

 

Online Degree Bubble Downgraded to 'Junk' status.
http://chronicle.com/article/The-Shadow-Scholar/125329/
Ed Dante, The Shadow Scholar is a ghostwriter for a custom-essay company, drafting paper after paper for students who can't complete them on their own. He writes undergraduate papers and graduate theses, proposals ... whatever: "The subject matter, the grade level, the college, the course--these things are irrelevant to me." "I work at an online company that generates tens of thousands of dollars a month by creating original essays based on specific instructions provided by cheating students. I've worked there full time since 2004. On any day of the academic year, I am working on upward of 20 assignments. In the midst of this great recession, business is booming. At busy times, during midterms and finals, my company's staff of roughly 50 writers is not large enough to satisfy the demands of students who will pay for our work and claim it as their own. ... I will make roughly $66,000 this year. Not a king's ransom, but higher than what many actual educators are paid. ...
The New York Times reported that 61 percent of undergraduates have admitted to some form of cheating on assignments and exams. ... [P]art of my job is to be whatever my clients want me to be. I say yes when I am asked if I have a Ph.D. in sociology. I say yes when I am asked if I have professional training in industrial/organizational psychology. I say yes when asked if I have ever designed a perpetual-motion-powered time machine and documented my efforts in a peer-reviewed journal." In the higher education cheating mill article, The Shadow Scholar said not only that he made his money by defrauding colleges and universities, but that eventually he realized that he had to become a liar himself in order to lure and retain clients, by presenting himself with credentials that he had not earned.
He argues that his ghostwritten papers are simply grist for the degree-mills - the kinds of schools currently under investigation by the federal government for fraud - and laments the "focus on evaluation over education" which he says made his college experience a "tremendous disappointment."
It certainly seems true that, just as the banks fueled the mortgage bubble, so colleges are fueling a degree bubble. Dante's job is made possible by colleges determined to feed America's increasing addiction to credentials and certifications. And other academic ghostwriters agree that, just as foreign demand for a piece of the American housing market fueled the mortgage bubble and led to widespread mortgage fraud, so foreign demand for American degrees is leading to corruption in the way degrees are granted.
Teachers aren't paying close attention. "My customers are your students,"
he says. "I promise you that. Somebody in your classroom uses a service that you can't detect, that you can't defend against, that you may not even know exists."
Suggests:
All that is required is for teachers to get involved in their students' writing process.  I often teach freshman courses, and I assign short papers to students (3 to 4 pages) every two weeks.  On Fridays, I schedule 30-minute editing sessions with each one, making for a long day of revision, but a productive one.  We go over commas
and verbs and syntax and transitions, sentence by sentence and word by word.
With that much focus on the composition, students won't risk the exposure.  They know they can't pass off someone else's prose as their own when under the microscope.  Moreover, because they have a rough draft to do first, they don't put the final version off to the night before it's due, and hence don't suffer the discombobulating need to find someone else to do it.
Technology can certainly be the enabling factor for teachers, students, and budget folks alike, for instance, Skype serving almost as well as face-to-face. The convenience factor is often the prime reason for failed office visits. Face-to-face questioning about and editing of a student's prose prevents them from submitting someone else's work as a rough draft. If you ask questions such as, "Why that verb?" and "What transition do we need here?" and you're attentive, any fraudulence will surface.

Paper Mills Students find papers and Sources Used for Plagiarism
Lawyers for Boston University are trying to end the sale of term papers over the Internet by filing a lawsuit against eight "paper mills." The lawsuit charged companies including Paper Shack, A-1 Termpapers and paperz.com - which sell essays on academic topics to students - with violating state and federal laws against wire fraud, mail fraud and racketeering.

Cheaters 101 | Teachers | Free Term Paper | Buy Research Paper

Teachers Learn How to Avoid Plagiarism

Students can avoid detection when they pay to have content written for them.

SOURCES FIGHTING PLAGIARISM

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